INFLUENCE OF THE EARLY KHAWARIJ IDEOLOGY ON MODERN “ISLAMIC” EXTREMISTS

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, Most Merciful;

Peace and Blessings upon the last Messenger ﷺ

INFLUENCE OF THE EARLY KHAWARIJ IDEOLOGY ON MODERN “ISLAMIC” EXTREMISTS  

Muhammad Ziyaad R

INTRODUCTION

Despite the twenty first century being an era of information and communication, it is very unfortunate that there still exist many misconceptions regarding Islam. One such misconception is on the issue of terrorism. Naturally, any misconception has roots somewhere and when it comes to modern day terrorism associated with Islam, it is an ideological group historically known as Kharijism that has caused much of the confusion among the Muslims and Non-Muslims alike. In this paper, I will examine the creed and principles of the early khawarij, how they influenced modern day extremist groups and why they have deviated from traditional mainstream Islam.

WHAT IS KHARIJISM?

Kharijism is the sect that the khawarij belong to. The word ‘Khawarij’ is the plural word of “khariji” and it comes from the Arabic root word ‘Kharaja’ which means ‘to leave’ or ‘to exit’ (Green 18, 1.2.1). In Islamic terminology, khawarij refers to the seceders, those Muslims who leave mainstream Islam, declare other Muslims as apostates and rebel against the rulers (Al-Shahrastaanee pp98-114). Imam Al Nawawi mentioned in Rawdat Ut Talibeen that “The Khaarijites are a group of heretics who believe that a person who commits a major sin is an unbeliever and will thus be punished in Hellfire for all eternity…” (Aal-Haamid p60).

The first of them, Dhul Khuwaisarah Al Tamimi, dared to call the Prophet ﷺ unjust because he did not agree with how some wealth was being distributed. This feeling of self-righteousness was shared by the other chiefs of Najd such as Dhul Khuwaisarah’s people who later rebelled against Abu Bakr’s caliphate under the leaderships of Sajaah and Musailama (Philips p21). This mentality of rebellion picked up pace again during the caliphate of ‘Uthman, led by a man by the name of Ibn Saba. His effort resulted in the assassination of Caliph ‘Uthman, May Allah be pleased with him. Ibn Saba and his followers joined the army of Ali, may Allah be pleased with him and caused further bloodshed. After Ibn Saba’s plot was discovered, he fled from Iraq and started preaching the divinity of Ali, a belief that was accepted by the Shia (Philips p37 footnote 73). Over time, the khawarij divided into subsects each having their own sets of beliefs, some more extreme than others such as the Azraqis, Ibadis and Sufris (Philips p31).

TRAITS AND BELIEFS OF THE EARLY KHAWARIJ

As I cited above, the khawarij are well known for declaring Muslims as disbelievers due to major sins (Ibn-Abdil-Izz p266). They claim that sins take the Muslims out of Islam and land them in hellfire forever (Ibn-Abdil-Izz p272). Based on this logic, they said that Ali committed kufr because he did not judge by the book of Allah but instead used arbitrators in the dispute with Mu’awiyah. This conviction that Ali was in opposition to their beliefs and thus an unjust ruler who committed kufr led them to assassinate him (Green p26).

The khawarij felt that rebelling against rulers and overthrowing them was a religious duty since they considered these rulers as unjust and going against their ideology (Green p29). The killing of the two righteous caliphs was the direct consequence of the khawarij outwardly criticizing and publishing their faults, which created resentment in the hearts of the people (Green p146). This behavior among the khawarij continued against the Muslim authorities resulting in the massacre of men, women and children during both the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties (Philips p30).

The distinctive charateristice of the khawarij was their splitting from the jama’ah, which consisted of the sahaba and taabein at that time. In their zeal to practice their deviated version of the religion, they did not pray with Muslims in the masjid because they believed that the imam and his followers are disbelievers (Green p32). Not only did they separate from the Muslims, but they also treated them badly. They were known to plunder, pillage and take slaves and concubines from the Muslims they attacked. According to them, the Muslims were disbelievers and lived in ‘dar al harb’ i.e land where there is no truce with the Muslim land or the place they gathered (Green p34). A good example of this was when six thousand khawarij broke off Ali’s army after the battle of Siffin and encamped in Haroora, a town near kufa, Iraq. There, they chose Shuaib ibn Rib’ee al Tamimi as leader for battle (Philips p23). Although they were defeated, this example gives us a brief look at their way of thinking: this group, with no sahaba on their side were ready to fight and kill some of the best people of this ummah.

The khawarij were known to be extremely devoted to the religion: they wanted to adhere to its principles, practice the verdicts and stay far from the prohibitions (Green p34). One hadeeth states that the khawarij would be so pious that even the sahaba would consider their prayer and Quran recitation inferior to the khawarij (Al-Bukhari had. # 6931). In another narration, fasting also is mentioned (Al-Bukhari had. #6933). They are very serious regarding prayers and they are known for their long prostrations, and the mark of prostration on their forehead. Moreover, they had black marks under their eyes due to excessive crying (from piety) (Al-Shahrastaanee p107). We have a good insight from the words of Abdullah ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, after he visited them for the purpose of negotiation:

“When I entered their camp, I found a people whose devotion in prayer the like of which I had never seen. Their foreheads were scarred from continuous and prolonged prostrations, and their palms were calloused like the knees of camels. Their clothes were washed and their faces lined from staying awake all night.” (Philips p24)

Due to these signs of faithfulness, many among the Muslims and non-Muslims conclude that they must be representing true Islam, when in fact, they deviated from it. Because of their lack of knowledge in Islam, the khawarij follow their desire in understanding the Quran, interpreting it the way they want to. This course of theirs is only natural seeing that they left the Jama’ah which comprised of the scholars among the sahaba at that time (Philips p24). Thus they had to rely on their own opinions and idea of justice, which led them astray although they had a strong sense of virtue. In the same hadeeth quoted above, the meaning of “they will recite the Qur’an, the teachings of which will not go beyond their throats” is that they will recite it and yet will not understand the correct meanings. One example of their deviation is their misunderstanding of the verse “And whosoever does not rule by what Allah has revealed then they are disbelievers” (Quran 5:44). The correct understanding of this verse, as explained by Ibn Abbas is that whoever rejects what Allah has revealed is a disbeliever whereas someone who believes in it but does not rule by it is a sinner (Ibn-Kathir 5:44). The khawarij understood this verse to mean that all sinners are disbelievers. This shows us that one should not be fooled into believing groups that claim they are the saved sect despite their eloquence and devotion.

MODERN DAY KHARIJSM

In modern times, we can see a number of groups in Muslim countries that arose calling to topple governments and set up states where they would rule by the book of Allah. These groups exist in different parts of the Muslim world such as the Al Shabab in Somalia, Jamat al Takfeer wal Hijra from Egypt, Al Qaeda from various countries and most recently, Boko Haram in Nigeria and ISIS in Iraq and Syria. Their ideology has no doubt influenced many people, who may have other beliefs and yet they caught the disease of the khawarij in regards to criticizing the Muslim rulers.

All these groups in fact conforms to the creed and practices of the khawarij mentioned earlier. If one looks at the news these days, it is very clear. One example of a leading personality with such traits is Abu Hamza Al Misri, someone influenced by the Qutbi ideology who took asylum in the UK in the 1990s and openly preached jihad against governments. He was mistaken to be salafi but in fact he attacks Salafism and particularly the rulers of Saudi Arabia, especially after the Iraq war. His ideas have unfortunately become very popular among Muslims who are quick to adopt these khawarij principles (Green p159). Even worse than this nowadays is the group called Al Qaeda, out of which came ISIS which is even more extreme. It is clear that the disease of kharijism spread once again from the Ikhwan al Muslimeen movement from Egypt, which called for fighting westernization and colonialism.

REFUTATION OF THEIR IDEOLOGY

Through studies of early kharijsm, one can apply the refutations of the early scholars against their modern counterparts. There are many narrations that describe the characteristics of the khawarij and their deviations. When one reads the following ahaadeeth, one can see the description of the people who belong to those jihadist groups:

  • Ubaidullah bin Abu Rafi’, the freed slave of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), said: When Haruria (the Khawarij) set out and as he was with ‘Ali b. Abu Talib (Allah be pleased with him) they said, “There is no command but that of Allah.” Upon this ‘Ali said: The statement is true but it is intentionally applied (to support) a wrong (cause). The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) described their characteristics and I found these characteristics in them. They state the truth with their tongue, but it does not go beyond this part of their bodies (and the narrator pointed towards his throat)(Al-Bukhari had.#6930). This hadeeth shows that they uttered the verse “There is no command but that of Allah” but they meant something else because they twisted its meaning to try to disprove Ali (Al-Nawawi 1066).
  • Allah’s Apostle, peace be upon him said, “During the last days there will appear some young foolish people who will say the best words but their faith will not go beyond their throats (i.e. they will have no faith)”(Al-Bukhari 6930). Imam Ibn Hajr explained in Fath al Bari that these people will be ‘shabaab’ (i.e. young in age) and their minds will be of poor intelligence. ‘The best words’ refers to the Quran, as Abu Dawood and Al Tabarani said “يُحْسِنُونَ الْقَوْلَ وَيُسِيئُونَ الْفِعْلَ” meaning they will utter the best words but they will have the worst action (Al-Asqalani 6531)[1].
  • Ibn Majah recorded a Ḥadith from Ibn ‘Umar that the messenger of Allah said: “There will arise a group of people who will recite the Quran but it will not reach beyond their throats. Every time a new generation of them rises, they will then disappear.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “I heard Allah’s messenger say, ‘Every time a new generation of them rises, they will then disappear,’ more than twenty times and then said: “Until the dajjal finally appears in their midst.” Al Sindhi commented that the phrase ‘in their midst’ actually has two meanings in Arabic. It can mean among the last of them while they are in their worst deception, debating under many banners or it can mean in their great army or great number of followers (al-Sindhi had. #174)[2]. In other narrations, it is recorded that the place where the dajjal would emerge is between Iraq and Syria (Muslim had. #7015).
  • “It is related on the authority of ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him): ‘When you see the black flags, remain where you are and do not move your hands or your feet. Thereafter there shall appear a feeble folk to whom no concern is given. Their hearts will be like fragments of iron. They are the representatives of the State (Ashab al-Dawla). They will fulfill neither covenant nor agreement. They will invite to the truth, though they are not from its people. Their names will be aliases [i.e. Abu So-and-so], and their ascriptions will be to villages [e.g. Al Baghdadi]. Their hair will be long like that of women, till they differ among themselves, and then Allah will bring forth the truth from whomever He wills.’” (Nu’aym had. #557). This hadeeth is mawquf and has not been categorized authentic or weak by any of the classic scholars[3]. The chain of transmission is weakened by Rashdeen ibn Sad and ibn Lahee’ah[4]. This narration may be indicative of a prophecy towards the end when the khawarij will abandon shaving their head. In other narrations, it is mentioned that the khawarij who rebelled against Ali were known by their shaved head. It is recorded in Fath ul Baari that the Khawarij originated from the east i.e. Iraq, and it was their habit to shave their heads as a sign of worship but it was a bid’ah they invented(Al-Asqalani had. # 7123)[5].
  • Narrated Yusair bin `Amr: I asked Sahl bin Hunaif, “Did you hear the Prophet (ﷺ) saying anything about Al-Khawarij?” He said, “I heard him saying while pointing his hand towards Iraq. “There will appear in it (i.e, Iraq) some people who will recite the Qur’an but it will not go beyond their throats, and they will go out from (leave) Islam as an arrow darts through the game’s body.’ “(Al-Bukhari had. #6934)
  • Another of their sign is that “they would kill the followers of Islam and would spare the idol-worshippers”(Muslim had. #1064)

One major sign of their deviation is the lack of scholarship in their ranks and having so called scholars giving fatwa on issues that will benefit their cause (Baksh p4). Just as Dhul Khuwaisarah thought he knew better than the Prophet, peace be upon him and just as the harooris thought they knew better than Ibn Abbas (RA), similarly the modern khawarij go against the words of the scholars. Sheikh Saleh al Fawzan said that the people who make takfir of rulers and ignorant and misguided. In regards to bombing and killing civilians, Sheikh Al Uthaymeen said that it is a filthy methodology that causes harm to Islam (Khawārij p20)[6]. Similarly, Imam Al Shawkanee said that killing women, children and old, except out of necessity is not permitted and it is also not permitted to torture by mutilation or burning by fire. Even when the Prophet’s companions were mutilated at Uhud, he did not return the act of barbarity (Green p230).

DEALING WITH RULERS

Some Muslims nowadays have taken to criticizing Muslim rulers without realizing that this is in fact a trait adopted from the khawarij ideology. They justify their criticism from the oppression of the rulers or what they perceive as injustices towards the ummah. However, we can find clear evidence in the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ that criticizing is not the Sunni way, rather it is the way of the khawarij. What is confirmed in the sunni tradition is to make dua for them to be upon the guidance of the Creator and to be good rulers for the ummah.

Al-Imam Al-Ajurri (d360H) states (Al-Shari’ah Vol 1 p371), ‘I have mentioned warnings against the ways of the Khawarij that convey the message for everyone who Allah protects against the ways of the Khawarij, and who does not hold the views of the Khawarij, but is [instead] patient over the injustice of the rulers and who prays for the wellbeing and righteousness of the rulers, and who does Hajj and Jihad behind the rulers against every enemy of the Muslims, and who prays the Jumu’ah and Eid prayers behind the rulers. Whoever fits this description is upon the Straight Path; insha Allah.’

Al-Fudayl bin Ayyad [Allah have mercy on him] said, ‘If I had one supplication that was going to be answered I would make it for the ruler, for the wellbeing and righteousness of the imam, for it means wellbeing for the land and its people.’ Al-Dhahabi, Siyar A’lam Al-Nubala`

Al-Barbahari (Sharh Al-Sunnah p113, 114) states, ‘If you see a man supplicating against the ruler, know that he is a heretic (sahib hawa), and if you see a man supplicating for the ruler, know that he is a Sunni insha Allah.’

According to Imam Al Tahawi, the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah does not make takfeer anyone of Ahlul Qiblah for committing a sin

It is Sunnah to hear and obey the Imaams and Ameers of Muslims, the righteous among them as well as the corrupt,as long as they do not command the disobedience of Allaah. For no one deserves obedience [if it involves] disobedience to Allaah. It is obligatory to obey whoever administers the caliphate, whether people agree on him and are pleased with him, or whether he captures the caliphate by conquest with the sword and is called Ameerul-Mu’mineen (Leader of the Faithful). It is forbidden to oppose and disobey him or to revolt against him and break the unity of Muslims.[Lum’atul I’tiqaad]

The Prophet (r) was authentically reported by ‘Imraan to have said, “No obedience is due to the creatures if it involves disobedience to the Creator.” [Ahmad and al-Haakim, and authenticated in Saheeh al-Jaami ‘ as-Sagheer, vol. 2, p. 1250, no. 7520]. There is also another narration related by ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib in which the Prophet (r) said, “No obedience is due to anyone if it involves disobedience to Allaah. Indeed obedience is in what is good.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 4, pp. 128, no. 203 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1022, no. 4534. The wording here is that of Muslim.)

“The Messenger of Allaah (r) called us and we made an oath of allegiance to him. Among the injunctions he made binding upon us was: listening and obedience (to the ameer ) in what is pleasing for us and what is displeasing, in times of adversity and prosperity, even when somebody is given preference over us, and without disputing the delegation of powers to a man duly invested with them except when we see clear and open disbelief from him, for which we have evidence from Allaah.” (Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1023, no. 4541)

Waa’il al-Hadramee related that Salamah ibn Yazeed asked Allaah’s Messenger, “Prophet of Allaah, if we have rulers who rule over us and demand that we discharge our obligations towards them, but they don’t discharge their own responsibilities towards us, what do you order us to do?” The Messenger of Allaah avoided giving any answer, so Salamah asked him again, but again he avoided giving an answer.Ash‘ath ibn Qays pulled him aside and the Prophet (r) said, “Listen to them and obey them, for on them will be their burden and on you will be yours.” (Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1027, no. 4551.)

ABUSE OF NAJD NARRATIONS

In the sunni traditions, we understand Najd according to what the great imam, commentator of Saheeh Al Bukhari, Ibn Hajar described. He said: “Al-Khattaabee said: The Najd in the direction of the east, and for the one who is in Madeenah then his Najd would be the desert of Iraaq and it’s regions [baadiya al-Iraaq wa Nawaaheehaa] for this is to the east of the People of Madeenah. The basic meaning of Najd is that which is raised/elevated from the earth in contravention to al-Gawr for that is what is lower than it. Tihaamah [the coastal plain along the south-western and southern shores of the Arabian Peninsula] is entirely al-Gawr and Mecca is in Tihaamah.” [Fathul Bari 13/58-59][7]. Hence, Najd is not only in Arabia but also part of Iraq. This point is important because some Muslims restricted the definition of Najd to an Arabian region only. Then, they went to extremes in labelling those from the Arabian region as heretics and disbelievers based on certain narrations taken out of context. Out of ignorance these Muslims favored the ideology of takfeer from the khawarij causing division in the Ummah by labelling whole groups as unbelievers. The Sunnis however, must acknowledge all the narrations about Najd in Arabia and Iraq, as explained by the scholars such as Imam Al Nawawi and Ibn Hajar al Asqalani. Only the ones with an agenda will continue to promote their ideology that Najd is in Arabia only.

To understand the fallacy in their arguments, one can look at the very hadeeth they quote to make their claim. It is a hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim that specifies tribes: “Verily Iman is towards this side (Yemen), and harshness and callousness of the hearts is found amongst the rude owners of the camels who drive them behind their tails (to the direction) where emerge the two horns of Satan, they are from the tribes of Rabi’a and Mudar” (Muslim, had. #51). None of the great commentators of ahaadeeth concluded what they caimee. Imam Al Nawawi commented that the emergence refers to the east where the dajjal emerges (Al-Nawawi). It is well known from many clear narrations that the dajjal will emerge from Iraq. Likewise in the explanation (sharh) of Sahih Al Bukhari, what is referred to is Iraq and even the Majoos from the Farsi Kingdom, and those people who are the Bedouins from the two tribes of Rabi’a and Mudar. The understanding of what is meant by “they are from the tribes …” in no way mean every single one from Rabi’a and Mudar is evil, rather the fitna will be caused by those from these tribes:

 

قَوْلُهُ : ( رَأْسُ الْكُفْرِ نَحْوَ الْمَشْرِقِ ) فِي رِوَايَةِ الْكُشْمِيهَنِيِّ ” قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ ” وَهُوَ بِكَسْرِ الْقَافِ وَفَتْحِ الْمُوَحَّدَةِ أَيْ مِنْ جِهَتِهِ ، وَفِي ذَلِكَ إِشَارَةٌ إِلَى شِدَّةِ كُفْرِ الْمَجُوسِ ، لِأَنَّ مَمْلَكَةَ الْفُرْسِ وَمَنْ أَطَاعَهُمْ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ كَانَتْ مِنْ جِهَةِ الْمَشْرِقِ بِالنِّسْبَةِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ ، وَكَانُوا فِي غَايَةِ الْقَسْوَةِ وَالتَّكَبُّرِ وَالتَّجَبُّرِ حَتَّى مَزَّقَ مَلِكُهُمْ كِتَابَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَمَا سَيَأْتِي فِي مَوْضِعِهِ ، وَاسْتَمَرَّتِ الْفِتَنُ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ كَمَا سَيَأْتِي بَيَانُهُ وَاضِحًا فِي الْفِتَنِ[8]

(Al-Asqalani had. #3125)

 

Another hadeeth that clarifies what the “horns of satan” is comes from the collection of Sahih Muslim Book 041, Hadith Number 6943:

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ أَبَانَ، وَوَاصِلُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ عُمَرَ الْوَكِيعِيُّ،-وَاللَّفْظُ لاِبْنِ أَبَانَ – قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ فُضَيْلٍ، عَن أَبِيهِ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ سَالِمَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ،بْنِ عُمَرَ يَقُولُ يَا أَهْلَ الْعِرَاقِ مَا أَسْأَلَكُمْ عَنِ الصَّغِيرَةِ وَأَرْكَبَكُمْ لِلْكَبِيرَةِ سَمِعْتُ أَبِي عَبْدَاللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏”‏ إِنَّ الْفِتْنَةَ تَجِيءُ مِنْ هَا هُنَاوَأَوْمَأَ بِيَدِهِ نَحْوَ الْمَشْرِقِ ‏”‏ مِنْ حَيْثُ يَطْلُعُ قَرْنَا الشَّيْطَانِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ وَأَنْتُمْ يَضْرِبُ بَعْضُكُمْ رِقَابَ بَعْضٍ وَإِنَّمَا قَتَلَ مُوسَى الَّذِي قَتَلَ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ خَطَأً فَقَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُ ‏‏ قَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عُمَرَ فِي رِوَايَتِهِ عَنْ سَالِمٍ لَمْ يَقُلْ سَمِعْتُ

“Ibn Fudail reported on the authority of his father that he heard Salim b. ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar as saying: O people of Iraq, how strange it is that you ask about the minor sins but commit major sins? I heard from my father ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar, narrating that he heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying while pointing his hand towards the east: Verily, the turmoil would come from this side, from where appear the horns of Satan and you would strike the necks of one another.” In this narration, is being specified.

Ibn Hajar also came to the same conclusion in his commentary on Al Bukhari’s hadeeth Book 93 Hadith 651, narrated by Abu Saeed Al Khudri:

 

قوله ( يخرج ناس من قبل المشرق ) تقدم في ” كتاب الفتن ” أنهم الخوارج وبيان مبدأ أمرهم وما ورد فيهم ، وكان ابتداء خروجهم في العراق وهي من جهة المشرق بالنسبة إلى مكة المشرفة

“It is mentioned in the “Book of Fitan”, that they are the khawarij … their beginning was in Iraq, which is east from Makkah”

What can be concluded from all the narrations available regarding Najd is that fitna was to come from Najd, as in the example I gave from the false prophets in Yamama as well as all the way east in relation to the coming of the dajjal in Iraq.

CONCLUSION

The purpose of this paper was to identify the traits of the early Khawarij as compared to modern extremist and analyze their beliefs and actions in the light of Islamic texts. One can clearly see the similarities of the early khawarij and those of this age. Despite their claims to the truth and their eloquence in voicing it out, their actions of extremism, criticizing, rebelling against rulers and killing the Muslims shows that they have deviated from the truth, since the left the main body of the Sunni Muslims. Their call is so deceptive due to their talent in twisting the verses of the Quran that many people got tricked into at least accepting and propagating some of their ideology. However, as time goes by, their actions will betray and expose them as who they really are, especially when the dajjal finally emerges amongst them.

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Nu’aym, Kitab al Fitan li Nu’aym bin Hammad.http://library.islamweb.net/hadith/. n.d. 17 6 2015.

Philips, Dr Bilal. The Devil’s Deception. Islamic Online University, n.d. online.

Quran. The Quran, Saheeh International. Riyadh, KSA: Al Muntada Al Islami Trust, November 2010.

REFERENCES:

[1]http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=12690&idto=12695&bk_no=52&ID=3824

[2]http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?bk_no=54&ID=2&idfrom=1&idto=504&bookid=54&startno=169

[3] http://library.islamweb.net/hadith/display_hbook.php?bk_no=285&pid=133541&hid=557

[4] http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=275797

[5]http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?bk_no=52&ID=4085&idfrom=13844&idto=13849&bookid=52&startno=2

[6] www.answering-extremism.com/trans-pub/ae_various_2.pdf

[7]English translation taken from  http://www.systemoflife.com/articles/refutation/364-reply-to-najd-hadith#axzz3efN3Ko5d

[8]http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?bk_no=52&ID=2027&idfrom=6007&idto=6028&bookid=52&startno=1

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The example of Nabi Muhammad (SAW) in the Madeenan Period for establishing a successful society

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Tala'al badru alayna, a qaseeda for the Prophet, peace be upon him coming to Madinah

Tala’al badru alayna, a qaseeda for the Prophet, peace be upon him coming to Madinah


The example of Nabi Muhammad (SAW) in the Madeenan Period for establishing a successful society

Muhammad Ziyaad R

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Bismillahi Rahmaani Raheem

Indeed in the Messenger of Allâh you have a good example to follow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Allâh and the Last Day and remembers Allâh much. (Quran, Surah Al Ahzaab: 21)
It is very clear from the seerah of the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم that the hijrah to Madinah was not only to run away from the plots of the Quraish. It was necessary for the Muslims to leave the place of persecution so that they could prosper as a society in peace and tranquility, in a land where they were welcome. This is because the Muslim Ummah possesses an ideology clearly defining their relation with Allah and their way of life in this world (Al Ghazali, p198). We have much to learn about how the early Muslims were successful in establishing the Islamic Society in Madinah. I will mention some points we can apply in our society nowadays to be a successful community, based on the Prophet’s hijrah to Madinah:

TAWHEED
A good foundation in the true belief regarding Allah is very important as we know that throughout his Prophethood, Muhammad صل الله عليه وسلم preached the true tawheed. The Prophet told his sahaba to teach tawheed first, such as to Muadh Bin Jabal when he was sent to Yemen(Al-Albaani, 2004).

MASJID
Upon arriving in Madinah, the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم first established the masjid, which he helped building like everyone else (Ghazali, p199). The masjid was not just a place where people would congregate for offering prayers. It was there that the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم trained the best. It was a place of spiritual and material guidance for the believers (Ghazali, p201). Part of the masjid, on the north, was reserved for those without home and family (Mubarakpuri, p87). In fact, when a Christian delegation came to Madinah, the Prophet invited them to stay in the masjid and debated with them about religion (). It was also a headquarter where all the affairs of the Ummah were administered (Mubarakpuri, p87). The community is incomplete without a center where they can congregate.

BROTHERHOOD
The prejudices based on tribes were completely uprooted and the Muslims became one Ummah. The feuds between Aws and Khazraj were now history and they became the Ansaar. The Prophet made this brotherhood into a valid contract and everyone acted upon it. It wasn’t mere words. The ingredients necessary for this brotherhood, then and now are the same: altruism, beneficence and love (Ghazali, p203).
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
The Muslims did not just stay among themselves and cared about their own affairs only. Once the bonds of brotherhood were forged among the Muslims, the Prophet made efforts to reach out to the Jews in an effort to preserve the peace and security so that everyone there could prosper (Mubarakpuri, p90). It was also important to have a pact with the Jews because previously, the Jews played the Aws and Khazraj against each other to keep power through the ‘divide and conquer’ strategy. Now that this power was no more in the Jews’ hands, steps had to be taken to make sure they don’t attempt to re-divide the now Muslim tribes in Madinah (Mubarakpuri, p85). This shows us how Muslims need to have a good understanding of the place they live in so that they could weigh in when it comes to preserving peace and security.

AN EXCELLENT LEADER
All of what has been discussed so far undoubtedly point to the excellence in the leadership skills of the Prophet Muhammad (صل الله عليه وسلم). His followers could see the positive effect that following him had in their lives and they love him a lot (Ghazali, p228). He was not a leader due to wealth or strength of his army. Rather he was a leader who everyone looked up to and wanted to imitate. He was a simple man, pleasant and easygoing and yet his entire character was the Quran (Ghazali, p230). How can an Islamic society prosper without a leadership that turns to the Quran and Sunnah for guidance?

CHARTER OF ISLAMIC ALLIANCE
Once the Ummah was united, the time to reap the benefits of this unity came and a charter was put in place and can be summed up as follows:
– Financial help: the Muslims were told to help each other financially in ransoming prisoners and in paying blood money. If the believers found destitute ones among themselves, they should rush to alleviate their problems.
– Everyone is treated equally under God’s law, even if the criminal is his son. This means that criminals are not to be helped or tolerated in Islam.
– The believer should not kill another believer or help a disbeliever against a believer. The believers should support each other. The one who kills a believer deliberately without justification is to be killed unless the sponsor says otherwise.
– Whenever there is a difference of opinion regarding a certain matter, then it is referred to Allah and the Messenger.
– The Jews who follow the Muslims should be helped and not injured. No one should help the enemies against them.
– The peace of the Muslims is one. There cannot be peace by a group of Muslims with those whom the other group of Muslims is fighting against. This means that Muslims should be ‘on the same page’ and be in consultation with each other.
This was in brief the charter of Islamic Alliance as mentioned in The Sealed Nectar (Mubarakpuri, p88)

ENJOINING RIGHTEOUSNESS AND GOOD MANNERS
The Prophet’s character, peace be upon him, was that of the Quran. He had the perfect manners and he was keen on infusing in the sahaba ethics for an exemplary behavior in society.
– being good to the neighbors is very important and Muslims must be careful not to harm them. In fact, Muslims should not be content in their homes while not knowing whether their neighbors are in need or not.
– Making sure there are no harmful things on the road is another example of how the Muslims contribute to benefit the society they live in. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “To remove something harmful from the road is charity”
– Extending greetings to those we know and those we do not know is also an important principle in keeping an atmosphere is friendship and love in a society.

These were some of the manners that the Prophet, peace be upon him, nurtured in the Madinan society that are very applicable today whether we live in the west or in a Muslim country (Mubarakpuri, p88)

GIVE AND TAKE
The Hudaibiya Treaty showed us that sometimes we have to be ready for some sacrifice and leave what we wanted to avoid situations of wars. In fact, during the period of the treaty, Islamic community grew more than ever. Despite all the set back that the Muslims had to accept in such treaty, patience bore its fruits (Siddiqui, p28).

With the fifteen points mentioned above, one can confidently say that Islam is a complete religion that, if followed, will make one able to establish a successful society where everyone will have a chance to progress.”Indeed, Allah and His Angels send blessings upon the Prophet. O you who believe! Send blessings on him and greet him (with) greetings.”

“Allaahumma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala azwaajihi wa dhurriyyatihi kama salayta ‘ala Ibraaheem, wa baarik ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala azwaajihi wa dhurriyyatihi kama baarakta ‘ala aali Ibraaheem, innaka hameedun majeed (O Allaah, send Your salaah (grace, honour and mercy) upon Muhammad and upon his wives and offspring, as You sent Your salaah upon Ibraaheem, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon his wives and offspring, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibraaheem. You are indeed Praiseworthy, Most Glorious).” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3369) and Muslim (407) from the hadeeth of Abu Humayd as-Saa‘idi (may Allah be pleased with him).

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Al Albaanee, M. Tawheed First. [online] Available at http://www.almuflihoon.com
Al-Ghazali, M. (1999) Understanding the life of Prophet Muhammad (saw). 1st Ed. IIPH (Riyadh).
Al Hilali and Khan, Translation of the meanings of The Noble Quran
Al Mubarakpuri, S. The Sealed Nectar [online]
Siddiqi, S (1989) Methodology of Dawah elallah in American perspective. The forum for Islamic Work [online].

AHL SUNNAH WAL JAMAAH: TRUTH & MODERATION

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Bismillahi Rahmani Raheem,

________________________________

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

 

Indeed in the Messenger of Allâh you have a good example to follow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Allâh and the Last Day and remembers Allâh much. (Al Ahzaab: 21)

AHL SUNNAH WAL JAMAAH: TRUTH & MODERATION

M Ziyaad R

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious Most Merciful

This is a very brief article, an exerpt from my ongoing research on this topic.

The sahabi Ibn Abbaas (Radi Allahu ‘anhu) said regarding aayah 106, aal imran:

يقول ابنُ عباس – رضي الله عنهما – في تفسير قوله – تعالى -: ﴿يَوْمَ تَبْيَضُّ وُجُوهٌ وَتَسْوَدُّ وُجُوهٌ﴾ [آل عمران: 106]، “فأمَّا الذين ابيضت وجوههم، فأهل السنة والجماعة، وأمَّا الذين اسودت وجوههم، فأهل البدع والضلالة”

 شرح أصول الاعتقاد”، للالكائي، (1/54).

“Those whose faces will be bright will be Ahlus-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah and those whose faces will be dark will be Ahlul-Bida’ah and deviation.”

[Sharh us sunnah; Also recorded in Tafseer Ibn Kathir and Tafseer At-Tabari]

MEANING OF ‘SUNNAH’ AND ‘JAMA’AH’

Imaam Hasan al Basri (rahimahullah) said:

“The SUNNAH is – by Him besides whom there is no god – between the 2 extremes of negation and indulgence. Therefore, hold fast to it – may Allah show you mercy. The followers of the Sunnah have been few in preceding generations and they will be few in the people that are left; those who did not opt for the indulgent in their indulgence nor with the innovators in their innovations, rather stayed on the Sunnah until they met their Lord. Be like them”

Hafiz Abu Muhammad Abd Al Rahman Bin Ismail (Abu Shamah) rahimahullah said in his book “The Novel and the Innovations” while speaking of the necessity to remain with the JAMA’AH:

“What it truly means is to hold fast to the Truth and follow it, even if those adhering to it are few and its opponents are plenty. For it is Truth that the preceding Jama’ah held fast unto, at the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him). We pay no attention to the great numbers after them holding falsehood as true.” [Ibn Abil Izz Al Hanafi, Sharh Aqeedah Al Tahawiyyah]

THE JAMA’AH IS WHAT AGREES TO THE TRUTH

الجماعة ما وافق الحق ، وإن كنت وحدك

 

The great Companion ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) (died in the year 32 H) told his student, ‘Amr ibn Maymoon, “Verily, the majority of the people are the ones splitting away from the Jamaa’ah! Verily, the Jamaa’ah is what is in accordance with the Truth, even if you were alone (i.e. the only one upon the Truth).” It was reported by al-Laalakaa’ee inSharh Usool Ali’tiqaad (no.160), and Ibn al-Qayyim quoted it in I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een(5/388).

EXAMPLE OF THIS:

 

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim said in I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een (5/389):

“All of the people were in contradiction (to the Truth) in the time of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, except for a small group. They were the Jamaa’ah themselves (of that time). The judges, the muftees, and the Caliph of that time and his followers were all in opposition (to the Truth). It was Imaam Ahmad by himself (and the few who supported him) who was the Jamaa’ah!”

What matters is that the Jamaah holds on to the truth, and the truth is what the Prophet and his sahaba were upon.

Imam Abu Ishaaq ash-Shaatibi said:

” وَالْآثَارُ فِي هَذَا الْمَعْنَى كَثِيرَةٌ جَمِيعُهَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى الِاقْتِدَاءِ بِهِمْ وَالِاتِّبَاعِ لِطَرِيقِهِمْ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ، وَهُوَ طَرِيقُ النَّجَاةِ حَسْبَمَا نَبَّهَ عَلَيْهِ حَدِيثُ الْفِرَقِ فِي قَوْلِهِ: “مَا أَنَا عليه وأصحابي

The reports that confirm this idea are many; all of them indicate that one should take them (Sahaba) as an example and follow their way in all situations. It is the way of salvation, as was pointed out in the hadeeth that speaks of the division of the ummah, in which the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:

“… what I and my companions are following.”

[al-I’tisaam, 3/307. See also Mirqaat al-Mafaateeh by Mullah ‘Ali al-Qaari, 1/374]

WHO DO WE TURN TO?

The words of the great scholars I’m quoting below are crystal clear:

Shaykh Abdul Qaadir al-Jeelaanee (d 561H) – rahimahullah – said:

“As for the the Saved-Sect it is Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and there is no name for Ahlus-Sunnah except one – and that is Ashaabul-Hadeeth”

Al-Ghuniyatut-Taalibeen p.212

Imaam Tirmidhi (رحمه الله) informs us that:

“According to the people of knowledge, the Jamaa’ah refers to the people of jurisprudence, learning and hadeeth”

[Tirmidhi, hadeeth no. 2256]

To end, let us ponder over this ayaah, an obligation upon every Muslim. One must seek the truth and hold on to it.

“And hold fast, altogether, to the Rope of Allah and be not divided”. (3:102)

Let us strive to follow the words of our beloved prophet, Muhammad (saw) and achieve our purpose!

From the event of Al Israa Wal Mi’raj: some creedal lessons we can derive

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MilkyWay

Some aqeedah lessons from the event of Al Israa Wal Mi’raj

Muhammad Ziyaad R

In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious Most Merciful:

A Miraculous Journey

The journey of Israa wal Miraj is a miracle from Allah and it is mentioned in the Quran in the chapter of Al Israa: “Glorified be He Who took His servant for a Journey by Night from Al-Masjid Al-Haram to Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa, the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him of Our Ayat . Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer” (Quran 17:1). He صل الله عليه وسلم first went from Makkah to Jerusalem and from Jerusalem he went in the direct presence of Allah. It is obligatory for us to believe that this event took place in one night[1] and that it happened between 12- 16 months prior to the hijrah.[2]

Not a dream

This special and miraculous journey took place in the company of the angel Jibreel alayhi salaam, who brought the Buraq for him to ride on.[3] The whole journey happened while the messenger صل الله عليه وسلم was awake and not in a dream.[4] Had it been just a dream, the pagans would not have labeled him as a liar and some newly converted Muslims would not have apostated because such an event is conceivable in a dream. Ibn Abbas RA explained that ‘the vision’ mentioned in ayah 17:60 is what the messenger صل الله عليه وسلم  saw with his own eyes. Moreover, spiritual journey unlike an actual physical one, does not require a special transport like the Buraq since the soul does not need this kind of transport.[5]

Status of the last Messenger

Al Israa, the first part of the journey, was in fact a further proof of his Prophethood to the people because he was able to describe with minute details the Masjid Al Aqsa although he never went there before that[6]. While in Jerusalem, he صل الله عليه وسلم led the other prophets in prayer and only the best can have this honor. Ibn Kathir said “his honorable status and superiority to them was manifested when he was made to go forward to lead them in prayer …”[7] He صل الله عليه وسلم is after all, the beloved of Allah and His Khaleel, Khayrul khalq (the best of creation).[8]

 

Conversation with the prophets, peace be upon them and their status

From Masjid al Aqsa in Jerusalem, Allah’s Messenger went with Jibreel into the heavens and met many prophets on each heaven. On the sixth heaven, he met Moosa alayhi salam. After they greeted, Moosa alayhi salam confirmed Muhammad’s prophethood صل الله عليه وسلم and mentioned that he (Muhammad صل الله عليه وسلم) will have the biggest ummah. He صل الله عليه وسلم also spoke to other messengers.[9] This shows that these prophets are honored by Allah and they are alive in barzakh[10]

Conversation with Allah

During the Journey, he صل الله عليه وسلم went past the lote tree and spoke directly to Allah without any intermediary. There, he was given the salah.[11] The pious predecessors of this unnah affirmed Allah’s speech as real and that it is not a creation.[12]

The real form of Jibreel

The Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم saw Jibreel alayhi salaam and we believe in what he صل الله عليه وسلم taught us. Jibreel السلام  عليهis described as having 600 wings.[13]

Seeing Allah

Because of his high status, some people believe that there was an exception for the prophet صل الله عليه وسلم  to see Allah during the Miraj. But Aisha Radi Allahu ‘anha clearly said that whoever claims this has lied. In another instance, the sahabi Abu Dharr Radi Allahu anhu asked the Prophet directly regarding this issue and he صل الله عليه وسلم replied “There was only light, how could I see Him”. The ‘light’ is explained in a hadeeth collected by Muslim as being the veil.[14] Allah knows best.

Abu Dharr said: “I asked the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), ‘Did you see your Lord?’ He said, ‘ He is veiled by Light, how could I see Him.’” (Narrated by Muslim, 261).

Jannah and Jahannam already exist

The prophet صل الله عليه وسلم was brought to Paradise and he described it. We believe that Jannah already exists. Similarly, he was shown jahannam and was shown a vision of its punishment.[15]

A sign of the hour: The dajjal

We believe in the prophecies regarding the signs of the Day of Judgment. Among the signs that the Prophet was shown during the Mi’raj is the description of the dajjal.[16] The dajjal was described as being a human being who can create illusions and do magic tricks and this is what the correct belief of the Ahlus Sunnah is.

Evidence that Allah is not everywhere

This miraculous journey brought the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم in the direct presence of Allah. It is known that he صل الله عليه وسلم went ‘above’ the seventh heaven, beyond the Lote tree and there he saw light and spoke to Allah directly. If Allah was present everywhere, the Prophet would have already been in His presence without needing to travel outside of the dimensions we are in now.[17]

The knowledge of the prophet صل الله عليه وسلم

During the Miraj, the prophet صل الله عليه وسلم asked Jibreel Alayhi Salaam many questions because he didn’t know who these people were or why certain people were inflicted some punishments.[18] However, Allah has chosen to give him knowledge of the ghaib (unseen) to strengthen and honour him, salawatullahi alaih.

Dissemination of knowledge of the unseen

Some people claim that the Prophet revealed some secret information to a restricted number of his companions. However, the narrations about this event have shown us that the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم did not hide any information. If any information was to be hidden, the events of the Israa wal Miraj would have been among them since it is not something ordinary. Hence, the Prophet told us the message in its completeness and did not keep any part of knowledge as secret.

May Allaah send blessings and peace upon His slave and Messenger, our Prophet Muhammad, and his family and companions.

REFERENCE:


[1] The Radiance of Faith, pdf p.75

[2] The Sealed Nectar, p 69

[3] The Sealed Nectar, p 69

[4] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, pdf p. 2787

[5] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, pdf p. 2788

[6] The Radiance of Faith, pdf p.78

[7] The Leader of the Prophets, p23

[8] The Leader of the Prophets, p20

[9] The Radiance of Faith, pdf p.76

[11] The Sealed Nectar, p 71

[12] The Radiance of Faith, pdf p.51

[13] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, p 2787

[14] Fundamentals of Tawheed, p 159

[15] The Radiance of Faith pdf p.76

[16] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, p 2783

[17] The Fundamentals of Tawheed, p 141

[18] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, p 2779

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Al Mubarakpuri, S. The Sealed Nectar

Hafiz Ibn Kathir, A Compilation of the Abridged Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Islamweb Staff, The Leader Of The Prophets [online] English.islamweb.net/emainpage

Philips, Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal, The fundamentals of Tawheed

Philips, Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal, A commentary on Ibn Qudaama Al Maqdisee’s The Radiance Of Faith

Website: http://en.islamtoday.net/node/1799

Do you know who Introduced the Milad Un Nabi?

‘Eid Milad was introduced by the Ismailis’ – Why is it important to know this?

Of course it is important for those who want to practice this celebration of Milad un Nabi to know about those who introduced this practice!

Here is why:
————–

– The Fatimids lied about their lineage

“There are several opinions concerning the lineage of al-Mahdi, which may be summed up by noting that he was neither Haashimi nor Faatimi [i.e., he was not descended from Banu Haashim or from Faatimah]” (Siyar A’laam al-Nubala’ 15/151)

– They claimed Divinity

“and claims that he is a lord instead of Allaah.” (Siyar A’laam al-Nubala’ 15/155).

– They claimed Prophethood

“When ‘Ubayd-Allaah claimed to be a prophet, he brought two of the faqeehs of Qayrawaan to appear before him as he was sitting on his throne, and he ordered one of his servants to say to the two Shaykhs: “Do you bear witness that this man is the messenger of Allaah?” They said: “By Allaah, if he came to us with the sun on his right and the moon on his left, both of them saying that he was a messenger of Allaah, we would not believe that.” So he ordered that they be slaughtered.” Al-Siyar (14/217).

** Reviling the Sahabas

“He ordered that words reviling the Sahaabah be written on the doors of the mosques and in the streets, and he ordered his state workers to revile them in 395 AH. (Tareekh al-Islam, events of 395 AH, p. 283)

** They incited followers to commit crimes

“They attacked the pilgrims, killing and taking prisoners, and they violated the sanctuary of Allaah in Makkah and took away the Black Stone.” Al-Siyar (15/147).

** Sunni Scholars say they are Heretics.

Al-Qaadi ‘Iyaad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

Abu Yoosuf al-Ra’eeni said: The scholars in Qayrawaan are unanimously agreed that Banu ‘Ubayd are apostates and heretics.
(Tarteeb al-Madaarik (4/720)

WILL YOU TAKE YOUR RELIGION AND PRACTICE FROM THESE PEOPLE WHO HAVE ABANDONED THE 5 DAILY SALAT, WUDHU AND FASTING, AND MAKE THEIR ‘HOLY DUA’ FACING ANY DIRECTION?

Summed up from: http://islamqa.info/en/101896

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WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE MILAD-UN-NABI CELEBRATION

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

PROPHET’S BIRTH DAY صل الله عليه وسلم

The Ulama of Ahlus Sunnah have agreed that it was on a Monday, Rabi’ Ul Awwal in the Year of the Elephant (570 CE). However, there is nothing authentic regarding the exact date and nothing in the Kutub Al Sittah.

Imaam an-Nawawee (d.676H) said: “There is an agreement that he was born on Monday in the month of Rabee’ul-Awwal. But there is a difference of opinion whether this day was the 2nd, 8th, 10th or 12th day of the month – and these ore the four most well-known opinions concerning this.(Tahdheeb Seeratun-Nabawiyyah, p.20)

The earlier scholars leaned towards the 8th, as mentioned by Ibn Abdil Barr (Al Istii’aab vol 1/31). Ibn Hajar al-Haytamî mentioned that there is a consensus from the historians that this is the correct date (Sharh Matn al-Hamziyyah, p 26). Ibn Sa’ad (d 230 H), one of the well-known respected historians of Early Islam did not count the 12th as being among the probable dates. In his Tabaqat, he favored the 2nd or the 10th (Tabaqaat Al Kubra vol1/100)

ISMAILI SHIAS (FATIMIDS)* INTRODUCED THIS CELEBRATION

The earliest mention of the Eid Milad is in Al-Maqrizi’s book ‘al Khitat’, who copied from Jamal uddeen Ibn Al Mamoon the son of the Grand Fatimid Visier. The Fatimids claimed to be descendents of the Prophet but this claim was rejected by others. They were the Shia seveners or Ismailis. They had conquered Egypt in 358 Hijri and were Rivals to the Sunni Abbasids in Baghdad until Salahuddeen Al Ayyubi defeated them in 567 Hijri.

The Fatimids had about 28 celebrations throughout the year, including the Mawlid, Nawruz, Christmas and Lent. The reason for all these celebrations, as indicated in al-Khitat (vol 1, p490) was to keep the people (especially minority Christains) happy and to win their hearts over the Abbasid Rivals.

According to Ibn Al Tuwayr , another early writer on the Mawlid (who actually witnessed the conquest of Salahuddeen), the Mawlid took place mainly around Mausoleums on 12th Rabi’ Ul Awwal where lots of sweets and gifts were distributed (see his book ‘Nuzhat al Muqlatain’).

Prior to this, no records are available to show that the Sahaba, Tabein or Taab at Tabein celebrated it. It was unknown to the 4 Imaams and up to that point, it was also unknown in the SUNNI lands! The historian Muhammad Ibn Yûsuf as-Sâlihî (d 943 H) mentioned from Imâm As-Sakhâwî (d. 902 H.) that he said: “Performing Al-Mawlid ash-Sharîf was not narrated from any of the Righteous predecessors in the three virtuous generations. Rather it only took place after that.” (Subul al-Hudâ war-Rashâd, Vol 1/439)

CELEBRATION SPREADS IN THE SUNNI LAND

Once the practice was well established in North Africa, the influence spread across the Muslim land into the Abbasid Dynasty. Among those who welcomed this practice were the sufis, in particular one of them named Umar Al Mullah (Al Bidayah wan Nihayah, vol.12, p.782).

Abu Shamah al Maqdisi (d.665), a famous historian from Damascus said: the first person to do that in Mosul was Shaykh ‘Umar ibn Muhammad al-Mala, one of the well-known righteous people. Then the ruler of Irbil and others followed his example (kitab al baaith ala inkaar al bidah wal hawadith, p24). The ruler of Irbil was the King al-Muzaffar Abu Sa’id Kawkaburi. He brought the Eid into a whole new level, one that rivaled the the Fatimids (Wafiyat al-A’yan 3/274).

During that time (end of 6th century Hijri) the influence had also spread to Makkah and Damascus but there were no celebrations as we know it now, on 12th Rabi’ Ul Awwal

THE EID MILAD IN INDIA/ PAKISTAN

Celebration by procession started first in in lahore, prior to Pakistan’s Independence on 5th July 1933/12th Rabbi ul awwal 1353. Ahsan writes in the newspaper of famous novelist Naseem Hijazi : “The Milad un Nabi procession was taken out by muslims citing the reason that hindus and Sikhs take out procession of their leaders, so even we have to do the same” (Newspaper Kohistan 22 July 1964).

REGARDING THE DEATH OF OUR BELOVED NABI ( صل الله عليه وسلم

إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ وَإِنَّهُم مَّيِّتُونَ

“Verily, you ( i.e Muhammad صل الله عليه وسلم) will die and verily, they (too) will die.” [39:30]

“The Prophet(pbuh) left this world on Monday morning, the twelfth of Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, in the eleventh year of Al-Hijrah. He was sixty-three years and four days old when he died.” (Raheeq Al Makhtum). Baraa Wafa was observed in the Indian Subcontinent on that day. Traditionally, it was mainly by the Shias but recently the word ‘Eid Milad’ is more common (than using Baraa Wafa) among the Sunnis there.

THE GREATEST CALAMITY

In fact, the Prophet’s death is a great calamity for this Ummah, nothing greater in calamity can ever happen:

The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa salaam) said,“If o­ne of you is afflicted with a calamity, then let him remember his calamity by me (i.e., by my death); for indeed, it is the greatest of calamities.” (Related by Ibn Sa’d, al-Darimi, and others; through other narrations that attested to it, it is authentic, as mentioned in al-Sahihah (106))

HIS DEATH IS A SIGN OF QIYAAMAH

عن عوف بن مالك رضي الله عنه قال: أتيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في غزوة تبوك وهو في قبة من أدم فقال: ((اعدُد ستًّا بين يدي الساعة: موتي، ثم فتح بيت المقدس، ثم موتان يأخذ فيكم كقعاص الغنم، ثم استفاضة المال حتى يعطى الرجل مائة دينار فيظلّ ساخطا، ثم فتنة لا يبقى بيت من العرب إلا دخلته، ثم هدنة تكون بينكم وبين بني الأصفر فيغدرون فيأتونكم تحت ثمانين غاية تحت كلّ غاية اثنا عشر ألفا) أخرجه البخاري في الجزية، باب: ما يحذر من الغدر (3176

The Prophet () said “Count six things before the advent of Qiyamah: My death, The conquest of Jerusalem …” (Bukhari)

A DAY OF ‘DARKNESS’ NOT CELEBRATION

رقم الحديث: 380
(حديث مرفوع) حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ هِلالٍ الصَّوَّافُ الْبَصْرِيُّ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ ، عَنْ ثَابِتٍ ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ ، قَالَ : ” لَمَّا كَانَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي دَخَلَ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْمَدِينَةَ أَضَاءَ مِنْهَا كُلُّ شَيْءٍ ، فَلَمَّا كَانَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي مَاتَ فِيهِ أَظْلَمَ مِنْهَا كُلُّ شَيْءٍ ، وَمَا نَفَضْنَا أَيْدِيَنَا مِنَ التُّرَابِ ، وَإِنَّا لَفِي دَفْنِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , حَتَّى أَنْكَرْنَا قُلُوبَنَا ” . 90
( الشمائل المحمدية للترم)

From Anas RA: ” … the day that he (saw) died, everything was gloomy (i.e due to sadness, the atmosphere was depressing) …”

WHAT ABU BAKR (RA) SAID

رقم الحديث: 1171
(حديث موقوف) حَدَّثَنَا حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ , قَالَ : أَخْبَرَنِي مَعْمَرٌ وَيُونُسُ , عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ , قَالَ : أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو سَلَمَةَ ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَخْبَرَتْهُ ، قَالَتْ : ” أَقْبَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَلَى فَرَسِهِ مِنْ مَسْكَنِهِ بِالسُّنْحِ حَتَّى نَزَلَ فَدَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ فَلَمْ يُكَلِّمْ النَّاسَ ، حَتَّى نَزَلَ فَدَخَلَ عَلَى عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا فَتَيَمَّمَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَهُوَ مُسَجًّى بِبُرْدِ حِبَرَةٍ ، فَكَشَفَ عَنْ وَجْهِهِ ثُمَّ أَكَبَّ عَلَيْهِ فَقَبَّلَهُ ، ثُمَّ بَكَى , فَقَالَ : بِأَبِي أَنْتَ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ ، لَا يَجْمَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ مَوْتَتَيْنِ ، أَمَّا الْمَوْتَةُ الَّتِي كُتِبَتْ عَلَيْكَ فَقَدْ مُتَّهَا ، قَالَ أَبُو سَلَمَةَ : فَأَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا ، أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ خَرَجَ وَعُمَرُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ يُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ , فَقَالَ : اجْلِسْ فَأَبَى ، فَقَالَ : اجْلِسْ فَأَبَى ، فَتَشَهَّدَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فَمَالَ إِلَيْهِ النَّاسُ وَتَرَكُوا عُمَرَ ، فَقَالَ : أَمَّا بَعْدُ ، فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَإِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَدْ مَاتَ ، وَمَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ حَيٌّ لَا يَمُوتُ ، قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى : وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلا رَسُولٌ إلى الشَّاكِرِينَ سورة آل عمران آية 144 وَاللَّهِ لَكَأَنَّ النَّاسَ لَمْ يَكُونُوا يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ الآيَةَ حَتَّى تَلَاهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فَتَلَقَّاهَا مِنْهُ النَّاسُ ، فَمَا يُسْمَعُ بَشَرٌ إِلَّا يَتْلُوهَا
صحيح البخاري » كِتَاب الْجَنَائِزِ » بَاب الدُّخُولِ عَلَى الْمَيِّتِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ

Narrated ‘Aisha :

Abu Bakr came riding his horse from his dwelling place in As-Sunh. He got down from it, entered the Mosque and did not speak with anybody till he came to me and went direct to the Prophet, who was covered with a marked blanket. Abu Bakr uncovered his face. He knelt down and kissed him and then started weeping and said, “My father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Prophet! Allah will not combine two deaths on you. You have died the death which was written for you.”

Narrated Abu Salama from Ibn Abbas : Abu Bakr came out and ‘Umar , was addressing the people, and Abu Bakr told him to sit down but ‘Umar refused. Abu Bakr again told him to sit down but ‘Umar again refused. Then Abu Bakr recited the Tashah-hud (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle) and the people attended to Abu Bakr and left ‘Umar. Abu Bakr said, “Amma ba’du, whoever amongst you worshipped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, Allah is alive and will never die. Allah said: ‘Muhammad is no more than an Apostle and indeed (many) Apostles have passed away before him ..(up to the) grateful.’ ” (3.144) (The narrator added, “By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah had revealed this verse before till Abu Bakr recited it and then whoever heard it, started reciting it “)

After this, how can anyone celebrate?

WHAT SCHOLARS SAID ON CELEBRATING MILAD-UN-NABI ( صل الله عليه وسلم)

No Sunni scholars spoke about the Mawlid celebration until the 700s Hijri because it never existed among Sunnis. When it became popular, we find a number of writings from these early scholars:

*** Imaam Ash-Shâtibî (d. 790 H.) stated: “So it is well known that the establishment of the Mawlid upon the description that is commonly known amongst the people is an innovated Bid’ah, and every Bid’ah is a Dhalâlah (misguidance). So spending to establish a Bid’ah is not allowed (Fatâwâ ash-Shâtibî, pg. 203-204)

*** Ibn Hajar Al Makki: “the practice of Many people stand at the time of dhikr and mawlid of RasoolAllah peace be upon him. This is an innovation because there is no hadith mentioned regarding this issue. Even if people do it in veneration of him (peace be upon him)” [Fatawa Hadithiya p60 under the heading مطلب في أن القيام في أثناء مولده الشريف بدعة لا ينبغي فعلها]
– Note: Ibn Hajar Al Makki was a sufi and the teacher of Mullah Ali Qari.

*** Tâj ad-Dîn Al-Fâkahânî (d. 734 H) said: “I do not know any basis for this Mawlid in the Book nor the Sunnah. And performing it is not narrated from anyone from the Scholars of the Ummah, who are the leaders in the religion and who hold steadfast to the narrations of the earlier ones (i.e. predecessors). Rather, it is a Bid’ah that was innovated by the useless, and it is the personal desire which the gluttons took advantage of…” (Al-Mawrid Fî ’Amalil-Mawlid, p20-21)

*** Ibn al-Hâj al-Mâlikî (d. 737 H) stated: “Then if it is free from it (i.e. matters that are Harâm in and of themselves), and he only makes food, and intends with the Mawlid, and invites the brothers, and it is free from what has been mentioned earlier, then it is a Bid’ah by the intention itself alone. Because that is an addition to the religion; not from the actions of the Salaf who have passed. And following the Salaf is more deserving, rather, it is more obligatory, than adding an intention to the religion which they did not have…” (Al-Madkhal, Vol. 2/10)

*** Muhammad Bin Yusuf As-Salahi Al Shaami “It has become a habit amongst many of the lovers of the Prophet peace be upon him that whenever they organise a gathering in his (peace be upon him) remembrance they stand up in veneration, whereas this standing is an innovation which has no basis.”[Subl al-Hudaa War-Rishaad (1/415 tanbeeh #2)]
– Note: He is the student of Jalal Ud deen Al Suyuti

*** Imam Ibn Rajab Al Hanbali: “It is not legislated for muslims to make any day as eid (Celebration) except what has come in Shareeah by taking them as celebration , and they are the day of fitr, the day of alAdha, the days of at Tashreeq, and the day of friday which is weekly eid, and it is an innovation to make any day eid apart from these days there is no basis for this in shariya. [lataif al ma`arif p228]

We find that these scholars, all of who are accepted by the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah, did not speak favorably regading this celebration. In fact, Imam Ibn Rajab’s explanation prompts us to look further into what actually is qualified as “Eid” in Islam.

CAN THE ‘MAWLID’ BE AN EID?

This is very important to know, especially if you intend to celebrate the Mawlid as an Eid. Consider the following Quran, hadith and ulama proofs below:

Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) said:

لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنسَكًا هُمْ نَاسِكُوهُ
“For every nation We have ordained religious ceremonies which they must follow”

لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا
“To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way”

The Prophet ( صل الله عليه وسلم) said “Verily, every people has its celebration and verily this is our celebration.” (Muttafaqun ‘alaih)

The Prophet ( صل الله عليه وسلم) said “Allâh has given you instead of them (i.e the other celebrations) two days that are better than them: the Day of al-Adh’hâ and the Day of al-Fitr.” (Abu Dawood 1134)

Hafiz Imam Ibn Rajab rahimahullah said:

أنه لا يشرع أن يتخذ المسلمون عيدا إلا ما جاءت الشريعة باتخاذه عيدا وهويوم الفطر ويوم الأضحى وأيام التشريق وهي أعياد العام ويوم الجمعة وهوعيد الأسبوع وما عدا ذلك فاتخاذه عيدا وموسما بدعة لا أصل له في الشريعة

“It is not legislated for muslims to make any day as eid (Celebration) except what has come in Shareeah by taking them as celebration , and they are the day of fitr, the day of alAdha, the days of at Tashreeq, and the day of friday which is weekly eid, and it is an innovation to make any day eid apart from these days there is no basis for this in shariya” (lataif al ma`arif p228).

NOTE: THAT IT IS CLEAR FROM THE ABOVE PROOFS THAT ONLY ALLAH CAN ORDAIN RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES. THIS IS A MATTER THAT WE LEAVE TO ALLAH AND HIS RASOOL CONVEYED.

So What Eids have been Ordained? Numerous hadiths are available:

Uqbah ibn Aamir reported that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “The day of Arafah,the day of sacrifice and the days of tashriq are eid days (festivals) for us, the people of Islam. These are days to eat and drink”. [Abu Dawud 2419, Nisai 3001][tirmdhi book 59 hadith 773]

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The days of Tashreeq are the days of eating and drinking.” Narrated by Muslim, 1141, from the hadeeth of Nubayshah al-Hadhali.

Abdullah Bin Abbas (رضی اللہ عنهما) reports that Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said “This is a day of ‘Eid that Allah has ordained for the Muslims, so whoever comes to Jumu‘ah, let him do ghusl, and if he has any perfume let him put some on, and you should use the miswaak.” (Ibn Maajah, 1098)

Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Uthaymeen said “If this celebration was from the Perfection of the Religion, it must have been in existence before the death of the Messenger of Allah (r). If it is not from the Perfection of the Religion, then it is not possible that it be from the religion, since Allah (I) said: “This day I have perfected your religion for you.” Whoever claims that it is from the Perfection of the Religion which occurred after the death of the Messenger of Allah Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then his claim amounts to a denial of this verse of the Qur`an.” [Majmoo‘ah Fataawaa, Muhammad bin Salih al-Uthaimeen vol. 2/ p.297-300]

HIS REAL BIRTH DAY صل الله عليه وسلم

Abū Qatāda narrates that a Bedouin came to the Prophet and asked him about fasting on Monday, to which the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم replied, “That is the day I was born on, and the day that the revelation began” [Narrated by Muslim]

>>> He صل الله عليه وسلم is the guide: where he showed, they go and
where he turned they don’t dare to go. This is REAL love for the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم
>>>Now, some groups tread where he turned but don’t go where he showed! They CLAIM to love him!

He صل الله عليه وسلم never did any yearly celebrations … Rather, he fasted on Mondays for many reasons, one of them being Monday is the day he was born!

IT IS SUNNAH TO FAST ON MONDAYS AN|D THURSDAYS

the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allaah exalt his mention) said: “The actions are presented (before Allaah) on every Monday and Thursday so, I like to have my deeds presented while I am fasting.” This narration was reported by Imaam Ahmad and At-Tirmithi

Abu Hurayrah may Allaah have mercy upon him also said, “The Prophet of Allaah used to fast on Monday and Thursday. When was asked about it, he said: “The work of the servants (of Allaah) are presented (to Allaah) on every Monday and Thursday. Every Muslim or Mu’min is forgiven except for those who are boycotting each other. He Says (about them): “Leave them.” [Musnad Ahmad]

I pray that Allah gives us understanding and guidance to the Straight Path, and make us successful in this world and in the hereafter.

آللهم ّ صلِّ على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

Muhammad Ziyaad R

REFERENCES

Alhamdulillah, I was able to compile the short article on the Prophet’s mawlid, among other sources, from the following articles:

http://muslimmatters.org/2009/03/11/the-birth-date-of-the-prophet-and-the-history-of-the-mawlid-part-i-of-iii/ by Sheikh Yasir Qadhi

http://www.systemoflife.com/articles/milaad/269-milad-un-nabi-or-prophet-birthday-celebrate-or-not#axzz2mudczupD by Salman Mohammed

http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vbe/showthread.php?t=17276&highlight=mawlid by Haytham Sayfaddin

The Life of Muhammad (صل الله عليه وسلم) in Mekkah: Inspiration for the Daa’ees (callers to Islam)

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The Life of Muhammad (صل الله عليه وسلم) in Mekkah: Inspiration for the Daa’ees (callers to Islam)

Muhammad Ziyaad R

All Praise is due to Allah, the Exalted, the Majestic and peace and blessings be upon our last messenger Muhammad the perfect model for us, who (صل الله عليه وسلم) was sent to call mankind and jinn to worship the Creator, Allah only. For thirteen years in Mecca, he strove hard to deliver the message. He cared a lot for the people around him and he was anxious for them to understand the truth. Muhammad peace be upon him died at the age of sixty three in Madeenah and he was buried there, but the call to the truth continues until the end of times. It is now upon the daa’ees (callers) to carry the words of truth to the whole world, not because they are fanatics who just want to propagate but because of the conviction that Islam is the only purely divine religion remaining: it has the solution to the problems mankind faces and is the success for the hereafter. In this paper, I will attempt to briefly describe how Muhammad peace be upon him interacted with the people Mecca, how he dealt with the challenges he faced, and how it applies to the callers to Islam.

The way that Rasulullah, peace be upon him used “to deliver the message of Allah (SWT) in calling the people of the land into His fold” is called da’wah (Siddiqi, 1989, p.35). The purpose of da’wah is to make sure knowledge of the truth reaches as far as possible, and it is a general obligation and a fulfillment of a trust and covenant with Allah as mentioned in the Quran “(And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it (the news of the coming of Muhammad صل الله عليه وسلم and the knowledge) known and clear to mankind” (Quran, 3:187). Hence a daa’ee is someone who brings the information about Islam to people. As a daa’ee, It is very important to strive to have taqwa i.e. to act in obedience to Allah seeking His reward and fearing his punishment, as well as to acquire other qualities as part of their character (Ibn Uthaymeen, p.3). There is no better way of achieving this except by looking up to the prophet peace be upon him as our model in all aspects of our lives.

Studying the situation in Mecca is a must for all daa’ees because he is likely to be the minority due to widespread ignorance among Muslims or if he lives in a non-Muslim country. Reading through the seerah of the prophet, we find that pre-Islamic Arabia witnessed many deviations such as immoral practices between the men and women and many superstitious beliefs (Mubarakpuri, p.20). The Arabs also had strong attachment to their tribes. As a result of this fanaticism, intertribal conflicts were very common (Mubarakpuri, p.21). The pagans of Mecca prior to Islam claimed that they followed Abraham’s religion. They believed in Allah, although most of the time they would worship idols as intermediaries to Allah. They had rituals devoted to the idols. They were also very superstitious as shown by their practices of Azlam (arrow picking) and their dependence on tiyaraa i.e. the path that animals take (Mubarakpuri, p.16). Some arabs had embraced Christianity such as Waraqa bin Nawfal, the cousin of Khadijah (Mubarakpuri, p.32). Despite growing up in this kind of society, the prophet peace be upon him never committed shirk or superstitious practices. In fact, he stayed away from any abominable or indecent acts also, such as drinking wine or going to parties (Mubarakpuri, p.30). When he was still young, Muhammad peace be upon him witnessed the ‘sacrilegious’ wars and the ‘Al Fudoul’ confederacy (Mubarakpuri, p.28). He worked as a shepherd and later, as a merchant for Khadijah who he later married. He was very wise and was well known for his excellent manners and character. The prophet peace be upon him was the best in solving problems. Even before his prophethood, he was known as Al Ameen (the trustworthy). He arbitrated between the Quraish when they were on the verge of fighting about who will place the black stone on the corner of the Ka’ba and thus maintained peace in the city of Mecca (Mubarakpuri, p29). Anyone who calls to Islam can learn and relate to Muhammad’s way, peace be upon him as it is mentioned in the Quran: “Indeed there is for you in the messenger of Allah an excellent example” (Quran, 33:21).

Notwithstanding his status among the Quraish, Muhammad, peace be upon him faced many challenges when he began to publicly call them to Islam. As soon as the aayah of surah 26:214 of the Qur’an was reavealed i.e. to warn the tribes of near kindred, he called Banu Hashim and some of Bani Al Muttalib for a meeting and invited them to Islam. Abu Lahab, his uncle was the first one to speak and opposed his call. The prophet also called his people from Mount Safa but only to receive criticism from his own uncle again (Mubarakpuri, p.39). Persecution intensified against the Muslims with every convert to Islam. Siddiqi (1989, p.17) explains that trials are actually part of da’wah and cannot be avoided. These periods of trial come from Allah to test the truthfulness of the Muslim to his iman as proven in the following ayah: “Do men imagine that they will be left at ease because they say ‘we believe’ and will not be tested?” (Al Qur’an, 29:2). But behind each trial, there is wisdom. It was because of such ill treatments that migration was allowed and thus, when his companions could do nothing else to advance the cause of Islam, they migrated to the more peaceful non Muslim society. As part of their scheme, the pagans offered him wealth and power in exchange of Islam, but the prophet rejected these temptations (Siddiqi, p.18). Hence trials are not in the form of persecutions only but also enticement. The prophet peace be upon him, considered it was wise for the new converts in Mecca to conceal their conversion for their own welfare. They used a temporary centre located in Safa mountain to meet secretly and learn about Islam (Mubarakpuri, p.54).

Until today, the attitude of people who are not open minded is the same. We hear cases where new converts are disowned by their family or face rejection from the whole community. Muslims who start practicing the authentic faith are pressured into returning to the traditions of their forefathers or even beaten. Therefore, a caller to Islam has to be ready to face such communities and help new converts in the best ways possible. So, what do daa’ees need? Sheikh Al Albani (2004) mentioned in ‘Tawheed First’ that from the methodology of all the prophets and messengers is to pay particular attention to tawheed. Sheikh Ibn Uthaymeen also alluded to that in the book ‘The provision of the Daa’iyah Ilallah’ based on the hadeeth about Mu’aadh, who was sent to Yemen to give da’wah, which is under the broader topic of having firm authentic knowledge (Ibn Uthaymeen, p.5). Without clear knowledge the daa’ee may confuse people or he might end up confused himself. Sheikh Ibn Uthaymeen mentioned five more characteristics: Patience is required due to opposition against him or his call. It is also not sure that Allah will allow the caller to see the fruits of his da’wah right away. Wisdom is needed as indicated in the aayah “Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom …” (Qur’an, 16:25). He, rahimahullah described wisdom as ‘proper assessment of matters, putting them in their right place and proper perspective’. One has to be aware that hastiness is not from wisdom. The daa’ee must also exhibit the best character and morals. The caller’s character should reflect his da’wah, otherwise it is hypocrisy. Removing barriers between him and the people is also important. What is meant by this is to advise people upon seeing something wrong and encourage them to do the right things. He shouldn’t condemn and leave a community because of the corruption he sees among them. The last point that Sheikh Ibn Uthaymeen mentioned was to be open to the people, especially if he knows that their intention is good. This is in relation to giving da’wah to the Muslims and it should always go back to the authentic evidences.

It has already been established that the way to deliver the message is based on the methodology of the prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. Allah has put the prophet in different situations so that his sahaba and all the daa’ees may know what to do when they face similar circumstances. The caller starts from those closest to him and makes sure they are in touch with him. The da’wah may become chaotic without any organization or cooperation among the people (Siddiqi, p.36). It is imperative for people to see Islam in practice so that they may realize how it can be beneficial in their lives such as resistance against evils of alcoholism, racism and pornography etc.(Siddiqi, p.37). Not being afraid to practice Islam openly and hatred towards evils in society bore its fruits in Mecca, although most of the Quraish were too proud to leave their ancestor’s religion (Ibn Baz, p.6). It was through this peaceful resistance that Allah guided many to Islam in Mecca (Siddiqi, p.42).

Nowadays, the call to Islam has become easier for the daa’ee through the use of technology. Travelling is easier and tools of da’wah have increased as we now have the media. On the other hand, enjoying too much the technology has left the ummah complacent. The number of daa’ees are very limited. When someone takes the shahada, everyone is happy but there is no follow up with new converts to help and teach them. They are left on their own and unfortunately we hear many cases of them returning to their previous state. In Mecca, Dar Ul Arqam was set up to teach the new sahaba about Islam and the Muslims helped each other. In that way, their faith grew strong. Now, there is no unity in the ummah which is a new challenge to the daa’ee since the sahaba in Mecca were one jama’ah. Lack of resources is also a problem, and the Muslims in Mecca faced a similar situation. Daa’ees need to be more involved with their communities and show that Islam can solve problems.

The daa’ee should not believe that he has the ability to guide people because even the prophet could not guide his uncle. He should therefore remember that his obligation is only to pass the message just like the sahaba did. The daa’ee should always find ways to improve the society he lives in and benefit the people, as this is what is required of a Muslim. I have shown in this paper that the life of the prophet in Mecca provides insight for the daa’ee and thus, the daa’ee should always keep in mind the example of Muhammad (صل الله عليه وسلم) and draw lessons to benefit himself and his community.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Ibn Uthaymeen, M. The Provision of the Caller to Allah [online] www.islamhouse.com Accessed on 28th June 2013, 1:44 pm

Al Hilali and Khan, Translation of the meanings of The Noble Quran

Al Albaanee, M. Tawheed First.

Al Mubarakpuri, S. The Sealed Nectar

Bin Baz, A. Manners and Etiquette of Da’wah

Siddiqi, S (1989) Methodology of Dawah elallah in American perspective. The forum for Islamic Work [online]. Available at www.dawahinamericas.com/. Accessed on 28th June, 2013, 1:48 pm

A short biography of Imam Al Shafi’i

A short biography of Imam Al Shafi’i

Muhammad Ziyaad R

Bismillah.

Imaam Shafi’i’s full name is Muhammad bin Idris bin Abbaas bin Uthman bin Shafi’i. His lineage goes back to the tribe of Banu Hashim ibn Muttalib from the tribe of Quraish in Mecca which is from the descendent of Ismael, son of Ibrahim (peace be with them) [Manaqib, p3]. In that way, he is the cousin of the prophet, peace be upon him. He was born in the Ghazza or Asqalan (which is not far away from Ghazza) in the year 150 H, the same year that imam Abu Hanifa died. After his father’s death, his mother left Ghazza to settle in Mecca when he was less than 2 years old. He was brought up in Mecca in poor circumstances and he studied under the scholars there. It is said that he memorized the Quran at the age of seven, the muwatta at the age of ten and he was declared fit to give fatawa at the age of fifteen. He also spent time with the Bedouins studying poetry and deepening his knowledge of Arabic language and grammar. His main teachers were Muslim Al Zanji, Mufti of Mecca and Sufyaan bin Uyayna [Risala, p 9-11].

Although he was already qualified to practice law, Muhammad bin Idris desired to further his knowledge under the leading scholar of hijaaz at that time, Imaam Maalik bin Anas. Therefore, around the age of twenty, he left Mecca for Medina. He obtained a letter from the governor of Mecca and went to the governor of Madina to request an audience with Maalik. The imam held a high position in Madina and was very difficult to reach but imam Al Shafi’i eventually made it and Maalik was impressed by his intelligence. He remained a student and follower of imam Maalik for nine years, until Maalik’s death. The governor of Yemen who was visiting Hijaz was impressed by Imam Shafi’i and requested his service there. Therefore, at the age of thirty, imam Al Shafi’i became an administrator at the service of the state. However, due to local interests and factional jealousies he was deported in chains to Baghdad, accused of being a secret follower of Zaidi imam Yahya bin Abdullah, an opponent of Calph Harun Al Rasheed. He was able to defend his position eloquently and was able to convince his loyalty to the caliph and he was pardoned. This is the place that Allah destined for him to meet another well known personality: Muhammad bin Al Hasan Al Shaybaani, a hanafi jurist who was one of the main students of Abu Haneefa. Even though imam Al Shafi’i was studying hanafi fiqh with Muhammad Al Shaybani, he still defended Maalik’s school of thought through discourses and arguments with the Hanafi jurists. These discussion made him aware of the weaknesses of both schools. He also debated with Muhammad Al Shaybani. Then, he returned to Mecca, where he was well received and began lecturing at the Haram. Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal was seeking Knowledge in Mecca at that time and became a student of Imaam Al Shafei. Many Maaliki admirers were disappointed by the differences in Al Shafi’i’s teachings since his teaching was a combination of all the knowledge he gathered and not just Maaliki [Risala, p12-13].

In the year 194 H, Al Shafi’i returned to Baghdad. During that time, he gathered Islamic material and 198 H, when al-Mamun became caliph, Al Shafi’i decided to settle in Egypt. It is told that the new caliph offered Al Shafi’i the position of a judge but he refused it. The caliph was known for promoting the rational philosophy of the Mu’tazila. It has been suggested that in anticipation for an atmosphere of intolerance to the orthodox views, Al Shafi’i chose to settle in Egypt at the age of fifty [Risala, p14]. His stance regarding the qur’an is that it is the word of Allah, and it is not created. He said that a person commits kufr by saying the qur’an is created [manaqib, p116]. It is also reported from Al Rabi, one of his famous students, that Imaam Al Shafi’isaid “Eman is saying and action, and it increases and decreases” [manaqib, p130]

In Egypt, he was on good terms with the governor and during the five years he lived there, he devoted his time to teaching and dictating his works to his students until his death. It was in Egypt that he wrote the book ‘Al Umm” [Risala, p15] while ‘Risala’ and ‘Hujjah’ were written in Iraq [Risala, p19]. We have many quotations from him regarding how to follow the religion. In one quote, he said that the sunnahs of the messenger, peace be upon him reach and escape everyone i.e no one has come across every single hadeeth. So if he said anything opposite of a sunnah, then the correct view is what the messenger, peace be upon him said. In another quotation from him, he said that when a hadeeth is found to be authentic, then this is his madhab [The prophet’s prayer, intro.]. It shows he acknowledged that even scholars can make mistakes but when we find authentic information we should follow that. This means that what he taught was actually to follow the madhab of rasoolullah peace be upon him when we find it.

BIBBLIOGRAPHY

Al Albaani, Sheikh Muhammad Naasir ud deen, The prophet’s prayer, trans (Eng.), Usama Suhaib Hasan

Fakr Ud deen, Imaam Al Raazi, Manaqibul Imaami Ash Shaafe’i (Arabic)

Al Shafi’i, Risala Fi Usul Al Fiqh, trans (Eng.), Majid Khadduri, 2nd Ed.

Floods

FLOODS
From a Muslim’s perspective

“Can this be a punishment from God?” This is probably the first and most asked question when disasters strike. That’s because we are reminded of the past nations who were punished by means of water.

Allah mentions the people of Saba:

“But they turned away (from the obedience of Allâh), so We sent against them Sail Al’Arim (flood released from the dam) … (16) Like this We requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a way except those who are ungrateful, (disbelievers) [Surah Saba, 34:11]

When the dam broke, their agriculture was completely destroyed and they had to flee. In another place, the Allah reminds us about the people of Noah, peace be upon him:

“We sent Nuh to his people and he remained among them for fifty short of a thousand years; yet the Flood engulfed them while they were wrongdoers.” [Qur’an, 29:14]

“But they denied him so We rescued him and those with him in the Ark. And We drowned the people who denied Our Signs. They were a blind people.” [Qur’an, 7:64]

Water came from the ground and combined with heavy rain, they were trapped and had nowhere to go. Similarly, the pharaoh and his people were punished by a big deluge:

They treated as false the Signs of their Lord: so We destroyed them for their crimes, and We drowned the people of Fir’awn: for they were all oppressors and wrong-doers. [Surat al-Anfal, 8:54]

All these calamities took place in a short time to demonstrate Allah’s Might and Power. It makes us realize how weak we are before Allah’s Might regardless of the might and power we have attained.

“Say: He has power to send torment on you from above or from under your feet, or to cover you with confusion…” [al-An’aam 6:65]

Another important lesson we can draw from the aayaat above is that the people turned away from the obedience of God and continued with their sins. This is further explained in the following two aayaat:

“And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much.” [Surah Al-Shura, 42: 30]

“Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allaah, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself” [al-Nisa 4:79]

Concerning the phrase “is from yourself”, Qatadah said: “[It means] the punishment is for you, O son of Adam, because of your sin.” (Tafseer Ibn Katheer).

So similarly nowadays, people receive warnings so that they can rethink about their situation and how they live their lives. One cannot forget about the massacre by the Buddhist extremists against the Muslims. Then, their areas were completely flooded in August 2012. And how many Pakistanis related the floods that happened there to the corruption at various levels in the country!

And what is most neglected by the people nowadays?

Allah has created the world and everything in it in order to serve and obey Him alone. He sent the Messenger to call the people to tawhid (monotheism) and to avoid the harm of shirk (i.e associating someone or something with God’s worship) for the individual and the society. Shirk is the reason for destruction in this life and the reason for eternal destruction in the fire of the Hereafter.

Verily, Allah forgives not that rivals should be set up in the worship with Him. He forgives save that (anything else) to whom He pleases and whoever set up rivals with Allah he has indeed done a tremendous dhulm (injustice). (Al Nisa:48)

“Say: Verily I call to my Lord and I do not ascribe any partners to Him at all.” [Al-Qur’an 72:20]

Verily, all the Messengers began their call with tawhid, which they were commanded by Allah to convey it to the people. He, the Most High, said:

“We have not sent before you from the Messengers, except We inspired to him that He is the only One worthy of worship, so worship Him.” [Al-Qur’an 21:25]

We find that people are not giving God His rights of worshipping Him alone. Instead, they join creatures along in His worship or they direct their worship to the creatures themselves. Some people whom Allah has given some knowledge can see these things happening and yet they stay quiet or they want to be comfortable. This is not right.

Narrated AbuBakr as-Siddiq (ra): I heard Allah’s Messenger say, “When people see something objectionable and do not change it, Allah will soon include them all in His punishment.” Ibn Majah and Tirmidhi, who declared it to be sahih, transmitted it.

So what does it mean for the believer?

Allah has decreed that, in this life, hardships and disasters strike both believers and non-believers. For a non-believer, they are inconveniences that deter him from proceeding with his normal life. For a believer, on the other hand, they are instances of remembrance, tests that promise great rewards, and indications of atonement and expiation of sins.

Narrated ‘Aisha: (the wife of the Prophet) Allah’s Apostle said, “No calamity befalls a Muslim but that Allah expiates some of his sins because of it, even though it were the prick he receives from a thorn.” (Bukhari)

It is an opportunity to catch up with good deeds!

It was reported that when there was an earthquake, Umar ibn Abd al Azeez (may Allaah have mercy on him) would write to his governors telling them to give in charity.

From Jaabir ibn AbdAllaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that when the aayah Say: He has power to send torment on you from above was revealed, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, Aoodhu bi wajhika (I seek refuge in Your Face … (Saheeh al-Bukhaari, 5/193).

No doubt that at such times, it’s important for the Muslim to return to Allah, be mindful of his actions and forbids evil in the society he lives in.

Muhammad Ziyaad R

Sending Salaat & Salaam Upon the Messenger, peace be upon him

Explanation and benefits of sending
SALAAT & SALAAM

Upon the Messenger, Muhammad (peace be upon him )

سْمِ اللهِ، وَالصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَّامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ

It is a great blessing indeed that Allāh ta’ala has sent to mankind the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam as our guide and the Qur’an as our Book.

Why do we send salat on the Messenger peace be upon him?

Allah ta’ala describes this bounty that He gave to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam in the Qur’an,

وَرَفَعْنَا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَ
and We have raised for you your mention. (94:4

We send salawat on the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam to acknowledge the great blessing that Allāh has given us by sending the Messenger to us. Just as prayer is a manifestation of our love, gratitude and obedience to Allāh azza wa jal, sending salawat on the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam shows our love for him, our respect for him, and our obedience to him.

You are following the way of Allah azza wa jal and His Honorable Angels.
Allāh azza wa jal says,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا
Allāh and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: O you that believe! Send your blessings on him, and salute him with all respect. (33:56)

Meaning of the words ‘salah’ and ‘salaam’

Scholars such as Imaam Ibnul Qayyim state that the meaning of sending blessings i.e salaah on the Prophet is to ask Allāh to praise him in the assembly of the Angels.

As for the tasleem, it is to ask Allah to give peace and security to our beloved messenger all the time. The sahaba asked Allah to keep him safe when he was alive, peace be upon him and we now ask Allah for him regarding yawmul qiyaamah
…..

Both angels on your rigth and left write in your favour
(amplification of reward, removal of sins and receiving the blessings of Allah).

The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever supplicates Allah to exalt my mention (i.e., send salah), Allah will exalt his mention (i.e., send salah) ten times
and remove from him ten sins and raise him ten degrees.”

[reported by Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Al-’As (May Allah be pleased with them)- Muslim]

……

Your salah on him reaches him sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.

The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“Allah has angels who go around on earth, conveying to me the salaam of my ummah.”

We have lost our chance in this life to see and interact with our Messenger sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, but out of Allah’s Great Mercy He has allowed our duaa to reach him no matter how far or close we are to his grave.

[It was narrated that Abdullah ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him)Sunan Nasaa’i]

…….

The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam will return your greeting.

The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said,

“There is not one of you who sends his greetings upon me except that Allah returns the soul to my body (in the grave) and I return his greeting.”

[reported by Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with him) Abu Dawood]

…….

Jibreel alayhi salaam will send salah and salaam upon you.

Abdur Rahman ibn Awf (may Allah be pleased with him) said, I came to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam while he was in prostration and he elongated his prostration and then said,

“Jibreel came to me and he said, ‘whoever sends blessings (salah) upon you, I will send blessings on him, and whoever sends greetings (salaam) upon you, I will send greetings upon him,’ so I prostrated out of thankfulness to Allah.’”

[Haakim, Saheeh]

……..

Answering of one’s duaa.

Most of us do not know that duaa is suspended between the heavens and earth until we send salawat on the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. Umar radi Allahu anhu said,

“Duaa is suspended between heaven and earth and none of it is taken up until you send blessings upon your Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.”

[At-Tirmidhi, Hasan Al-Albani]

The scholars state that it is recommended (mustahabb) to include salawat in our duaa for the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.

…….

The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam invited the believers to make salah on him.

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“Do not take your houses as graves and do not take my grave as a place of eid i.e gathering and festivity, which you visit regularly.

Send blessings upon me for your greeting will reach me no matter where you are.”

[Abu Dawood, Saheeh]

………..

You will not be among the humiliated.

Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said,

“May his nose soil with dust in whose presence mention is made of me and he does not supplicate for me.”

[At-Tirmidhi, Saheeh]

Imam Nawawi rahimahullah states the saying ‘may his nose be rubbed in dust’ means to suffer humiliation and disgrace. That is “may such person be humiliated and disgraced who hears my name and does not invoke Allah’s blessings upon me.”

…….

You will not be among the miserly.

Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said,

“The miser is the one in whose presence I am mentioned but he does not supplicate for me.”

[At-Tirmidhi, Saheeh]

…….

You will not be among those that Jibreel alayhi salaam made duaa against and the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam replied “Ameen”

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ascended the minbar and said: “Ameen, ameen, ameen.”

It was said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, you ascended the minbar and said, ‘Ameen, ameen, ameen.”

He said: “Jibreel came to me and said:

‘If Ramadan comes and a person is not forgiven, he will enter Hell and Allah will cast him far away.
Say Ameen.’ So I said Ameen.

He said: ‘O Muhammad, if both or one of a person’s parents are alive and he does not honour them and he dies, he will enter Hell and Allah will cast him far away.
Say Ameen.’ So I said Ameen.

He said: ‘If you are mentioned in a person’s presence and he does not send blessings upon you and he dies, he will enter Hell and Allah will cast him far away.
Say Ameen.’ So I said Ameen.”

[ibn Hibbaan, Saheeh]

…….

You will be among the closest to the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam on a Day that will cause a child’s hair to become grey.

Ibn Mas’ood (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“The people who will be nearest to me on the Day of Resurrection will be those who supplicate Allah more often for me.”

[At-Tirmidhi, Hasan li ghayrihi Al-Albani]

Imam Nawawi rahimahullah states, “Nearest to me” signifies “those who are most entitled to my intercession”.

……..

Allah will love you and forgive you

because following the sunnah of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. Allah says,

“Say (O Muhammad to mankind): “If you (really) love Allah then follow me , Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (3:31)

………

Your love for the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam will increase.

When you love someone, your mind is filled with thoughts of them. By constantly making duaa for the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam

whenever his name is mentioned, you are making a conscious effort to remember him. Put in the effort to internalize the salawat whenever you make them and understand who you are making duaa for,

and inshaAllah your love for him will increase tremendously, alayhi salaatu wa salaam.

………………………………………….. ………………………………….

The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam loved this ummah so much so that on his deathbed he kept repeating “ummati, ummati“, “my Ummah! my Ummah!”

He is the one who said, “I wish to see my brothers!”

The Companions said, “O Messenger of Allah! Are not we your brothers?”

He sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, “You are my Companions, but my brothers are those who have not come into the world yet.” [Muslim]

…………….

He is the one who made duaa for you after every prayer!

A’ishah radi Allahu anha narrated
“Once, when I saw the Prophet in a good mood,
I said to him: “O Messenger of Allah! Supplicate to Allah for me!

” So, he said: “O Allah! Forgive ‘A’ishah her past and future sins, what she has hidden, as well as what she has made apparent.”

So, I began smiling, to the point that my head fell into the lap of the Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam out of joy.

The Messenger of Allah said to me: “Does my supplication make you happy?” I replied: “And how can your supplication not make me happy?”

He then said: “By Allah, it is the supplication that I make for my Ummah in every prayer.”

[Narrated in Al Bazzaar, Hasan Al-Albani]

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How to Send Salawat

Ibn Hajar rahimahullah says,

The wording of dhikrs is tawqeefi (i.e., acts of worship which must be done as prescribed in the texts), and they have special characteristics that cannot be subject to analogy. So one must adhere to the wording of salat and salam as it was narrated in ahadith. ( and not described or made by people regardless of who they are)

The most important aspect of sending salawat is that it is done in accordance with what the Prophet himself taught us; as a condition for the acceptance of deeds is that they are from the sunnah of Rasul Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.

After the mention of his name, one should say: sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam or alayhi salaatu wa salaam which can be translated as: may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him or peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. One can also say any duaa that sends peace and blessings upon him such as: Allahumma sali wa sallim alaa Nabiyyina Muhammad, O Allah send Your praise, prayers and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad.

For other times such as in salah or on Fridays, one should say what the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam taught us from the sunnah. There are two authentic narrations with different wordings:

Abu Muhammad Ka’b bin Ujrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam came to us and we asked him,

“O Messenger of Allah, we already know how to greet you (i.e., say As-salamu alaykum), but how should we supplicate for you?”

He said, “Say:
`Allahumma salli `ala Muhammadin, wa `ala aali Muhammadin, kama sallaita `ala aali Ibrahima, innaka Hamidum Majid. Allahumma barik `ala Muhammadin, wa `ala aali Muhammadin, kama barakta `ala aali Ibrahima, innaka Hamidum Majid [O Allah, exalt the mention of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you exalted the family of Ibrahim. You are Praised and Glorious. O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed the family of Ibrahim. You are Praised and Glorious.]”’
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Abu Humaid As-Sa’idi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
The Companions of the Messenger of Allah said:

“O Messenger of Allah! How should we supplicate for you?”

He sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam replied, “Say:
`Allahumma salli `ala Muhammadin wa `ala azwajihi wa dhurriyyatihi, kama sallaita `ala Ibrahima; wa barik `ala Muhammadin wa `ala azwajihi wa dhurriyyatihi, kama barakta `ala Ibrahima, innaka Hamidum-Majid [O Allah, exalt the mention of Muhammad and his wives and offspring as You exalted the mention of the family of Ibrahim, and bless Muhammad and the wives and the offspring of Muhammad as you blessed the family of Ibrahim. You are the Praised, the Glorious’].”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

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Can we Send Salawat for the Prophet with those Traveling to Madinah?

A modern practice we see nowadays is asking those who are going for hajj/umrah and will be visiting the Prophet’s Masjid to say, “send my salaams to the Prophet,” however this is not from the sunnah nor has it been recorded that any of the righteous predecessors did this. Shaykh ibn al-Uthaymeen rahimahullah beautifully states,

We say: if you send salaam upon him from the farthest ends of the earth, your salaam will reach him, because Allah has appointed angels who travel about the earth, and if anyone sends salaams upon the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), they convey that salaam to the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

So if we say now, “O Allah, send blessings and peace upon the Messenger of Allah,” our salaam will be transmitted to him. In prayer we say, “Al-salaamu ‘alayka ayyuha’l-nabiyyu wa rahmat-Allahi wa barakatuhu (Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings),” and the salaam is transmitted to him…

I have heard some people saying in Madinah, “My father asked me to give his salaams to the Messenger,” but this is wrong. The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is not alive so that the salaams of a living person may be passed on to him.
If your father sends salaams to the Messenger, the salaam is conveyed by those who are more able than you to convey it and are more trustworthy than you , namely the angels.

So there is no need for that, and we say: You are where you are, wherever you are on earth you can say, “Peace be upon you, O Prophet,” and it will reach him faster and more reliably than that.
Majmoo’ Fataawa aShaykh Ibn Baz, 23/416, 417

Send your salaam on him now and it will reach him by the will of Allah.

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Obligatory and Recommended Times to send Salawat

We’ve established that sending salawat on the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam is a noble deed in Islam, however there are prescribed times for it and times that this act is not recommended or allowed. Furthermore, for specific supplications that the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam taught us, we must only say what he narrated without any modifications.

The obligatory and recommended times are as follows:

1. During the tashahhud in prayer.
Shaykh Al-Albani rahimahullah gives a detailed description on sending salah in the tashahhud as well as some important notes on this act in general in his book “The Prophet’s Prayer Described”.

2. After the Adhan.
Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Al-’As (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam saying, “When you hear the Adhan, repeat what the Mu’adhdhin says. Then ask Allah to exalt my mention because everyone who does so will receive in return ten rewards from Allah. Then beseech Allah to grant me Al-Wasilah, which is a high rank in Jannah, fitting for only one of Allah’s slaves; and I hope that I will be that man. If any one asks Al-Wasilah for me, it becomes incumbent upon me to intercede for him.”
[Muslim]

In another hadeeth, Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, “He who says after the Adhan: `Ash-hadu an la ilaha illallah Wah-dahu la sharika Lahu; wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa Rasuluhu, radhitu Billahi Rabban, wa bi Muhammadin Rasulan, wa bil Islami Deenan [I testify that there is no true god except Allah Alone; He has no partners and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger; I am content with Allah as my Rubb, with Muhammad as my Messenger and with Islam as my Deen],’ his sins will be forgiven.”
[Muslim]

3. When entering and leaving the Masjid.

4. Fridays.
Aus bin Aus (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, “Among the best of your days is Friday; so supplicate Allah more often for me in it , for your supplications will be displayed to me.”

He was asked: “O Messenger of Allah! How will our blessings be displayed to you when your decayed body will have mixed with the earth?” He sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam replied, “Allah has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of the Prophets.” [Abu Dawood, Saheeh Al-Albani]

5. Daily Adhkar (remembrances) of the morning and evening.
Abu Dardaa (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, “whoever sends blessings on me ten times in the morning and ten times in the evening will receive my intercession.” [Al-Tabarani] This hadeeth is disputed amongst the scholars of hadeeth; Shaykh Al-Albani declared its chain weak while Al-Sakhawi and Imam ibnul Qayyim declared it authentic. However, sending salawat on the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam daily is still recommended based on the hadeeth, Ibn Mas’ood (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: “The people who will be nearest to me on the Day of Resurrection (i.e., receive my intercession) will be those who supplicate Allah more often for me.” [At-Tirmidhi, Hasan Al-Albani]

6. When his name is mentioned in a gathering/written form etc.
The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The miser is the one in whose presence I am mentioned but he does not supplicate for me.”
[At-Tirmidhi, Saheeh Al-Albani] It is important to note though that it is established among the scholars that it is not obligatory to send salawat on the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam every time his name is mentioned. Shaykh Al-Munajjid from IslamQA.

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Times When it is not Allowed or Disliked to send Salawat

Imam ibnul Qayyim rahimahullah stated,
Sending blessings upon the Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam, although it is one of the best and most beloved of deeds to Allah, every dhikr has its own place and time, where no other can take its place.
Jala’ al-Afhaam (1/424)

These times include:
1. When slaughtering the animal.
The sunnah of slaughtering is to say only “Bismillah Allahu Akbar”, “With the Name of Allah, Allah is Greater [than everything else]”.

2. When sneezing.
It was narrated from Nafi’ that a man sneezed beside Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) and said “Alhamdulillah was-salaam ‘alaa Rasul Allah (Praise be to Allah and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah).” Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “And I say, ‘Alhamdulillah was-salaam ‘alaa Rasul Allah (Praise be to Allah and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah)’ – but this is not what the Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam taught us. He taught us to say: ‘Alhamdulillahi ‘alaa kulli haal (Praise be to Allah in all situations).’” [Al-Tirmidhi, Saheeh Al-Albani]

3. When bowing (ruku’) or prostrating (sujood) in prayer, or any times in the salah other than the tashahhud.

4. If you come upon an ayah in the Qur’an that has the name or mention of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.

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Writing SAWS/SAS/PBUH etc

The Muslim is one who strives to do ihsaan (utmost good) in all of their deeds, even a seemingly simple deed such as making a duaa for the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.

Shaykh ibn Baaz rahimahullah said when asked about the validity of writing SAWS or the like:

“The Sunnah is to write the entire phrase “sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam,” since it is a kind of supplication, and supplication is worship, …..

Fatwawa Al-Lajnatid-Daa’imah #18770

Imam Suyooti rahimahullah also affirms this by saying,
“It is disliked to resort to these abbreviations when making salah and salaam on the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.”

Shaykh Ahmad Shakir said,
“It is the absurd tradition of some of the later generations that they abbreviate the writing of ’sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.’” [Musnad Imam Ahmad]

We ask Allah to make us among those who love, follow and obey His Prophet and we implore Him to make us among those who will be with His Messenger on the Day of Judgment and to grant us his companionship in The Highest Gardens of Jannah.
Ameen.

May the most perfect and complete Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon our Messenger and Prophet, and Allah the Most High knows best.

Reference: http://muslimmatters.org/2009/12/21/believers-send-your-blessings-on-him-a-concise-resource-for-salawat-on-the-prophet/

Lets strive to follow the words of our beloved prophet, Muhammad (saw) and achieve our purpose!