بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
PROPHET’S BIRTH DAY صل الله عليه وسلم
The Ulama of Ahlus Sunnah have agreed that it was on a Monday, Rabi’ Ul Awwal in the Year of the Elephant (570 CE). However, there is nothing authentic regarding the exact date and nothing in the Kutub Al Sittah.
Imaam an-Nawawee (d.676H) said: “There is an agreement that he was born on Monday in the month of Rabee’ul-Awwal. But there is a difference of opinion whether this day was the 2nd, 8th, 10th or 12th day of the month – and these ore the four most well-known opinions concerning this.(Tahdheeb Seeratun-Nabawiyyah, p.20)
The earlier scholars leaned towards the 8th, as mentioned by Ibn Abdil Barr (Al Istii’aab vol 1/31). Ibn Hajar al-Haytamî mentioned that there is a consensus from the historians that this is the correct date (Sharh Matn al-Hamziyyah, p 26). Ibn Sa’ad (d 230 H), one of the well-known respected historians of Early Islam did not count the 12th as being among the probable dates. In his Tabaqat, he favored the 2nd or the 10th (Tabaqaat Al Kubra vol1/100)
ISMAILI SHIAS (FATIMIDS)* INTRODUCED THIS CELEBRATION
The earliest mention of the Eid Milad is in Al-Maqrizi’s book ‘al Khitat’, who copied from Jamal uddeen Ibn Al Mamoon the son of the Grand Fatimid Visier. The Fatimids claimed to be descendents of the Prophet but this claim was rejected by others. They were the Shia seveners or Ismailis. They had conquered Egypt in 358 Hijri and were Rivals to the Sunni Abbasids in Baghdad until Salahuddeen Al Ayyubi defeated them in 567 Hijri.
The Fatimids had about 28 celebrations throughout the year, including the Mawlid, Nawruz, Christmas and Lent. The reason for all these celebrations, as indicated in al-Khitat (vol 1, p490) was to keep the people (especially minority Christains) happy and to win their hearts over the Abbasid Rivals.
According to Ibn Al Tuwayr , another early writer on the Mawlid (who actually witnessed the conquest of Salahuddeen), the Mawlid took place mainly around Mausoleums on 12th Rabi’ Ul Awwal where lots of sweets and gifts were distributed (see his book ‘Nuzhat al Muqlatain’).
Prior to this, no records are available to show that the Sahaba, Tabein or Taab at Tabein celebrated it. It was unknown to the 4 Imaams and up to that point, it was also unknown in the SUNNI lands! The historian Muhammad Ibn Yûsuf as-Sâlihî (d 943 H) mentioned from Imâm As-Sakhâwî (d. 902 H.) that he said: “Performing Al-Mawlid ash-Sharîf was not narrated from any of the Righteous predecessors in the three virtuous generations. Rather it only took place after that.” (Subul al-Hudâ war-Rashâd, Vol 1/439)
CELEBRATION SPREADS IN THE SUNNI LAND
Once the practice was well established in North Africa, the influence spread across the Muslim land into the Abbasid Dynasty. Among those who welcomed this practice were the sufis, in particular one of them named Umar Al Mullah (Al Bidayah wan Nihayah, vol.12, p.782).
Abu Shamah al Maqdisi (d.665), a famous historian from Damascus said: the first person to do that in Mosul was Shaykh ‘Umar ibn Muhammad al-Mala, one of the well-known righteous people. Then the ruler of Irbil and others followed his example (kitab al baaith ala inkaar al bidah wal hawadith, p24). The ruler of Irbil was the King al-Muzaffar Abu Sa’id Kawkaburi. He brought the Eid into a whole new level, one that rivaled the the Fatimids (Wafiyat al-A’yan 3/274).
During that time (end of 6th century Hijri) the influence had also spread to Makkah and Damascus but there were no celebrations as we know it now, on 12th Rabi’ Ul Awwal
THE EID MILAD IN INDIA/ PAKISTAN
Celebration by procession started first in in lahore, prior to Pakistan’s Independence on 5th July 1933/12th Rabbi ul awwal 1353. Ahsan writes in the newspaper of famous novelist Naseem Hijazi : “The Milad un Nabi procession was taken out by muslims citing the reason that hindus and Sikhs take out procession of their leaders, so even we have to do the same” (Newspaper Kohistan 22 July 1964).
REGARDING THE DEATH OF OUR BELOVED NABI ( صل الله عليه وسلم)
إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ وَإِنَّهُم مَّيِّتُونَ
“Verily, you ( i.e Muhammad صل الله عليه وسلم) will die and verily, they (too) will die.” [39:30]
“The Prophet(pbuh) left this world on Monday morning, the twelfth of Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, in the eleventh year of Al-Hijrah. He was sixty-three years and four days old when he died.” (Raheeq Al Makhtum). Baraa Wafa was observed in the Indian Subcontinent on that day. Traditionally, it was mainly by the Shias but recently the word ‘Eid Milad’ is more common (than using Baraa Wafa) among the Sunnis there.
THE GREATEST CALAMITY
In fact, the Prophet’s death is a great calamity for this Ummah, nothing greater in calamity can ever happen:
The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa salaam) said,“If one of you is afflicted with a calamity, then let him remember his calamity by me (i.e., by my death); for indeed, it is the greatest of calamities.” (Related by Ibn Sa’d, al-Darimi, and others; through other narrations that attested to it, it is authentic, as mentioned in al-Sahihah (106))
HIS DEATH IS A SIGN OF QIYAAMAH
عن عوف بن مالك رضي الله عنه قال: أتيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في غزوة تبوك وهو في قبة من أدم فقال: ((اعدُد ستًّا بين يدي الساعة: موتي، ثم فتح بيت المقدس، ثم موتان يأخذ فيكم كقعاص الغنم، ثم استفاضة المال حتى يعطى الرجل مائة دينار فيظلّ ساخطا، ثم فتنة لا يبقى بيت من العرب إلا دخلته، ثم هدنة تكون بينكم وبين بني الأصفر فيغدرون فيأتونكم تحت ثمانين غاية تحت كلّ غاية اثنا عشر ألفا) أخرجه البخاري في الجزية، باب: ما يحذر من الغدر (3176
The Prophet () said “Count six things before the advent of Qiyamah: My death, The conquest of Jerusalem …” (Bukhari)
A DAY OF ‘DARKNESS’ NOT CELEBRATION
رقم الحديث: 380
(حديث مرفوع) حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ هِلالٍ الصَّوَّافُ الْبَصْرِيُّ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ ، عَنْ ثَابِتٍ ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ ، قَالَ : ” لَمَّا كَانَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي دَخَلَ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْمَدِينَةَ أَضَاءَ مِنْهَا كُلُّ شَيْءٍ ، فَلَمَّا كَانَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي مَاتَ فِيهِ أَظْلَمَ مِنْهَا كُلُّ شَيْءٍ ، وَمَا نَفَضْنَا أَيْدِيَنَا مِنَ التُّرَابِ ، وَإِنَّا لَفِي دَفْنِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , حَتَّى أَنْكَرْنَا قُلُوبَنَا ” . 90
( الشمائل المحمدية للترم)
From Anas RA: ” … the day that he (saw) died, everything was gloomy (i.e due to sadness, the atmosphere was depressing) …”
WHAT ABU BAKR (RA) SAID
رقم الحديث: 1171
(حديث موقوف) حَدَّثَنَا حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ , قَالَ : أَخْبَرَنِي مَعْمَرٌ وَيُونُسُ , عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ , قَالَ : أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو سَلَمَةَ ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَخْبَرَتْهُ ، قَالَتْ : ” أَقْبَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَلَى فَرَسِهِ مِنْ مَسْكَنِهِ بِالسُّنْحِ حَتَّى نَزَلَ فَدَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ فَلَمْ يُكَلِّمْ النَّاسَ ، حَتَّى نَزَلَ فَدَخَلَ عَلَى عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا فَتَيَمَّمَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَهُوَ مُسَجًّى بِبُرْدِ حِبَرَةٍ ، فَكَشَفَ عَنْ وَجْهِهِ ثُمَّ أَكَبَّ عَلَيْهِ فَقَبَّلَهُ ، ثُمَّ بَكَى , فَقَالَ : بِأَبِي أَنْتَ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ ، لَا يَجْمَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ مَوْتَتَيْنِ ، أَمَّا الْمَوْتَةُ الَّتِي كُتِبَتْ عَلَيْكَ فَقَدْ مُتَّهَا ، قَالَ أَبُو سَلَمَةَ : فَأَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا ، أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ خَرَجَ وَعُمَرُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ يُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ , فَقَالَ : اجْلِسْ فَأَبَى ، فَقَالَ : اجْلِسْ فَأَبَى ، فَتَشَهَّدَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فَمَالَ إِلَيْهِ النَّاسُ وَتَرَكُوا عُمَرَ ، فَقَالَ : أَمَّا بَعْدُ ، فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَإِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَدْ مَاتَ ، وَمَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ حَيٌّ لَا يَمُوتُ ، قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى : وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلا رَسُولٌ إلى الشَّاكِرِينَ سورة آل عمران آية 144 وَاللَّهِ لَكَأَنَّ النَّاسَ لَمْ يَكُونُوا يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ الآيَةَ حَتَّى تَلَاهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فَتَلَقَّاهَا مِنْهُ النَّاسُ ، فَمَا يُسْمَعُ بَشَرٌ إِلَّا يَتْلُوهَا
صحيح البخاري » كِتَاب الْجَنَائِزِ » بَاب الدُّخُولِ عَلَى الْمَيِّتِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ
Narrated ‘Aisha :
Abu Bakr came riding his horse from his dwelling place in As-Sunh. He got down from it, entered the Mosque and did not speak with anybody till he came to me and went direct to the Prophet, who was covered with a marked blanket. Abu Bakr uncovered his face. He knelt down and kissed him and then started weeping and said, “My father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Prophet! Allah will not combine two deaths on you. You have died the death which was written for you.”
Narrated Abu Salama from Ibn Abbas : Abu Bakr came out and ‘Umar , was addressing the people, and Abu Bakr told him to sit down but ‘Umar refused. Abu Bakr again told him to sit down but ‘Umar again refused. Then Abu Bakr recited the Tashah-hud (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle) and the people attended to Abu Bakr and left ‘Umar. Abu Bakr said, “Amma ba’du, whoever amongst you worshipped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, Allah is alive and will never die. Allah said: ‘Muhammad is no more than an Apostle and indeed (many) Apostles have passed away before him ..(up to the) grateful.’ ” (3.144) (The narrator added, “By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah had revealed this verse before till Abu Bakr recited it and then whoever heard it, started reciting it “)
After this, how can anyone celebrate?
WHAT SCHOLARS SAID ON CELEBRATING MILAD-UN-NABI ( صل الله عليه وسلم)
No Sunni scholars spoke about the Mawlid celebration until the 700s Hijri because it never existed among Sunnis. When it became popular, we find a number of writings from these early scholars:
*** Imaam Ash-Shâtibî (d. 790 H.) stated: “So it is well known that the establishment of the Mawlid upon the description that is commonly known amongst the people is an innovated Bid’ah, and every Bid’ah is a Dhalâlah (misguidance). So spending to establish a Bid’ah is not allowed (Fatâwâ ash-Shâtibî, pg. 203-204)
*** Ibn Hajar Al Makki: “the practice of Many people stand at the time of dhikr and mawlid of RasoolAllah peace be upon him. This is an innovation because there is no hadith mentioned regarding this issue. Even if people do it in veneration of him (peace be upon him)” [Fatawa Hadithiya p60 under the heading مطلب في أن القيام في أثناء مولده الشريف بدعة لا ينبغي فعلها]
– Note: Ibn Hajar Al Makki was a sufi and the teacher of Mullah Ali Qari.
*** Tâj ad-Dîn Al-Fâkahânî (d. 734 H) said: “I do not know any basis for this Mawlid in the Book nor the Sunnah. And performing it is not narrated from anyone from the Scholars of the Ummah, who are the leaders in the religion and who hold steadfast to the narrations of the earlier ones (i.e. predecessors). Rather, it is a Bid’ah that was innovated by the useless, and it is the personal desire which the gluttons took advantage of…” (Al-Mawrid Fî ’Amalil-Mawlid, p20-21)
*** Ibn al-Hâj al-Mâlikî (d. 737 H) stated: “Then if it is free from it (i.e. matters that are Harâm in and of themselves), and he only makes food, and intends with the Mawlid, and invites the brothers, and it is free from what has been mentioned earlier, then it is a Bid’ah by the intention itself alone. Because that is an addition to the religion; not from the actions of the Salaf who have passed. And following the Salaf is more deserving, rather, it is more obligatory, than adding an intention to the religion which they did not have…” (Al-Madkhal, Vol. 2/10)
*** Muhammad Bin Yusuf As-Salahi Al Shaami “It has become a habit amongst many of the lovers of the Prophet peace be upon him that whenever they organise a gathering in his (peace be upon him) remembrance they stand up in veneration, whereas this standing is an innovation which has no basis.”[Subl al-Hudaa War-Rishaad (1/415 tanbeeh #2)]
– Note: He is the student of Jalal Ud deen Al Suyuti
*** Imam Ibn Rajab Al Hanbali: “It is not legislated for muslims to make any day as eid (Celebration) except what has come in Shareeah by taking them as celebration , and they are the day of fitr, the day of alAdha, the days of at Tashreeq, and the day of friday which is weekly eid, and it is an innovation to make any day eid apart from these days there is no basis for this in shariya. [lataif al ma`arif p228]
We find that these scholars, all of who are accepted by the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah, did not speak favorably regading this celebration. In fact, Imam Ibn Rajab’s explanation prompts us to look further into what actually is qualified as “Eid” in Islam.
CAN THE ‘MAWLID’ BE AN EID?
This is very important to know, especially if you intend to celebrate the Mawlid as an Eid. Consider the following Quran, hadith and ulama proofs below:
Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala) said:
لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنسَكًا هُمْ نَاسِكُوهُ
“For every nation We have ordained religious ceremonies which they must follow”
لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا
“To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way”
The Prophet ( صل الله عليه وسلم) said “Verily, every people has its celebration and verily this is our celebration.” (Muttafaqun ‘alaih)
The Prophet ( صل الله عليه وسلم) said “Allâh has given you instead of them (i.e the other celebrations) two days that are better than them: the Day of al-Adh’hâ and the Day of al-Fitr.” (Abu Dawood 1134)
Hafiz Imam Ibn Rajab rahimahullah said:
أنه لا يشرع أن يتخذ المسلمون عيدا إلا ما جاءت الشريعة باتخاذه عيدا وهويوم الفطر ويوم الأضحى وأيام التشريق وهي أعياد العام ويوم الجمعة وهوعيد الأسبوع وما عدا ذلك فاتخاذه عيدا وموسما بدعة لا أصل له في الشريعة
“It is not legislated for muslims to make any day as eid (Celebration) except what has come in Shareeah by taking them as celebration , and they are the day of fitr, the day of alAdha, the days of at Tashreeq, and the day of friday which is weekly eid, and it is an innovation to make any day eid apart from these days there is no basis for this in shariya” (lataif al ma`arif p228).
NOTE: THAT IT IS CLEAR FROM THE ABOVE PROOFS THAT ONLY ALLAH CAN ORDAIN RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES. THIS IS A MATTER THAT WE LEAVE TO ALLAH AND HIS RASOOL CONVEYED.
So What Eids have been Ordained? Numerous hadiths are available:
Uqbah ibn Aamir reported that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “The day of Arafah,the day of sacrifice and the days of tashriq are eid days (festivals) for us, the people of Islam. These are days to eat and drink”. [Abu Dawud 2419, Nisai 3001][tirmdhi book 59 hadith 773]
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The days of Tashreeq are the days of eating and drinking.” Narrated by Muslim, 1141, from the hadeeth of Nubayshah al-Hadhali.
Abdullah Bin Abbas (رضی اللہ عنهما) reports that Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said “This is a day of ‘Eid that Allah has ordained for the Muslims, so whoever comes to Jumu‘ah, let him do ghusl, and if he has any perfume let him put some on, and you should use the miswaak.” (Ibn Maajah, 1098)
Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Uthaymeen said “If this celebration was from the Perfection of the Religion, it must have been in existence before the death of the Messenger of Allah (r). If it is not from the Perfection of the Religion, then it is not possible that it be from the religion, since Allah (I) said: “This day I have perfected your religion for you.” Whoever claims that it is from the Perfection of the Religion which occurred after the death of the Messenger of Allah Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then his claim amounts to a denial of this verse of the Qur`an.” [Majmoo‘ah Fataawaa, Muhammad bin Salih al-Uthaimeen vol. 2/ p.297-300]
HIS REAL BIRTH DAY صل الله عليه وسلم
Abū Qatāda narrates that a Bedouin came to the Prophet and asked him about fasting on Monday, to which the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم replied, “That is the day I was born on, and the day that the revelation began” [Narrated by Muslim]
>>> He صل الله عليه وسلم is the guide: where he showed, they go and
where he turned they don’t dare to go. This is REAL love for the Prophet صل الله عليه وسلم
>>>Now, some groups tread where he turned but don’t go where he showed! They CLAIM to love him!
He صل الله عليه وسلم never did any yearly celebrations … Rather, he fasted on Mondays for many reasons, one of them being Monday is the day he was born!
IT IS SUNNAH TO FAST ON MONDAYS AN|D THURSDAYS
the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allaah exalt his mention) said: “The actions are presented (before Allaah) on every Monday and Thursday so, I like to have my deeds presented while I am fasting.” This narration was reported by Imaam Ahmad and At-Tirmithi
Abu Hurayrah may Allaah have mercy upon him also said, “The Prophet of Allaah used to fast on Monday and Thursday. When was asked about it, he said: “The work of the servants (of Allaah) are presented (to Allaah) on every Monday and Thursday. Every Muslim or Mu’min is forgiven except for those who are boycotting each other. He Says (about them): “Leave them.” [Musnad Ahmad]
I pray that Allah gives us understanding and guidance to the Straight Path, and make us successful in this world and in the hereafter.
آللهم ّ صلِّ على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين
Muhammad Ziyaad R
Alhamdulillah, I was able to compile the short article on the Prophet’s mawlid, among other sources, from the following articles:
http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vbe/showthread.php?t=17276&highlight=mawlid by Haytham Sayfaddin